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 The organs of the digestive system can be separated into two groups  The alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract – perform all the functions of digestion.

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Presentation on theme: " The organs of the digestive system can be separated into two groups  The alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract – perform all the functions of digestion."— Presentation transcript:

1  The organs of the digestive system can be separated into two groups  The alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract – perform all the functions of digestion as the long, coiled, hallow, muscular tube winds through the body  Accessory digestive organs – assist the digestive process

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3  Also known as the oral cavity  This is where food enters the body. As it enters the body it is mixed with saliva and masticated (chewed)  It is a mucous membrane lined cavity  It is protected by the lips  The cheeks form the sides of the mouth, the hard palate forms the anterior roof, and the soft palate forms the posterior roof  The floor of the mouth is occupied by the muscular tongue  At the anterior portion of the mouth are the paired palatine tonsils (sides) and lingual tonsil (base)

4  Subdivided into three parts  Nasopharynx – the section that part if the respiratory system  Oropharynx – posterior to the oral cavity  Laryngopharnyx – part that connects to the esophagus  This area helps to propel food, which is also known as peristalsis

5  Also known as the gullet  Runs from the pharynx, through the diaphragm, and to the stomach  It is essentially a passageway for peristalsis  It is composed of the same four basic layers of all the other organs from the esophagus to the large intestine

6  Mucosa – the moist, innermost layer that lines the cavity  Submucosa – a soft connective tissue layer just below the mucosa that contains blood vessels, nerve endings, and lymphatic vessels  Muscularis externa – the smooth muscle layer which is made up of a circular inner layer and longitudinal outer layer  Serosa – the outermost wall

7  C-shaped organ on the left side of the abdominal cavity that is hidden by the liver and diaphragm  The stomach acts as a temporary storage tank for food as well as a site for food breakdown  The stomach has an additional muscle layer so that it can move and churn its contents  It also has various cells that produce digestive enzymes and gastric juice to break down the food as well as mucous producing cells to protect the stomach.  The processed food is called chyme as it leaves the stomach and heads for the small intestine.

8  It is the main digestive and food absorption organ  It is the longest part (8-18 feet) of the alimentary canal and is a long twisted passageway  It is composed of three areas called the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum  Walls of the small intestine have microvilli, villi and circular folds to help increase the surface area and therefore increase absorption

9  Larger in diameter, but shorter in length than the small intestine  Its main purpose is to dry out the indigestible food residue by absorbing water and to eliminate this residue from the body as feces through the anus

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11  Produce saliva – a mixture of mucus and serous fluids  Saliva moistens and binds food together into a mass called a bolus  Amylase in the serous fluid begins the digestive process by breaking down the starch in food

12  Helps process food by breaking the food down into smaller pieces while helping the food mix with the saliva  Normally an adult will have 32 teeth

13  A soft, pink, triangular gland that extends across the abdomen from the spleen to the duodenum  Produces a multitude of enzymes that chemically break down food  The enzyme secretions form the pancreas enter the small intestine at the duodenum

14  Largest gland of the body  Its function in digestion is bile production, which emulsifies fats  This means the large fat molecules are separated into smaller molecules. This increases the surface area and gives fat digesting enzymes more places where they can work.

15  Small, thin-walled green sac  Stores bile while digestion is not occurring  While being stored, the bile is concentrated by removing water  If bile is stored too long or too much water is removed, the cholesterol it contains may crystallize forming gallstones.

16  Ingestion – the voluntary act of putting food in the mouth  Propulsion – movement of materials through the digestive system by peristalsis  Food Breakdown by Mechanical Digestion – physically fragmenting the materials  Food Breakdown by Chemical Digestion – chemically fragmenting the materials  Absorption – moving usable digested food into the body  Defecation - moving unusable digested food out of the body

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