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CSE 522 UPPAAL – A Model Checking Tool Computer Science & Engineering Department Arizona State University Tempe, AZ 85287 Dr. Yann-Hang Lee

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Presentation on theme: "CSE 522 UPPAAL – A Model Checking Tool Computer Science & Engineering Department Arizona State University Tempe, AZ 85287 Dr. Yann-Hang Lee"— Presentation transcript:

1 CSE 522 UPPAAL – A Model Checking Tool Computer Science & Engineering Department Arizona State University Tempe, AZ 85287 Dr. Yann-Hang Lee (480) 727-7507

2 UPPAAL -- Introduction  A tool for modeling, simulation and verification of real- time systems.  Appropriate for systems that can be modeled as  a collection of non-deterministic processes with finite control structure and real-valued clocks (i.e. timed automata)  Networks of timed automata  communicate through channels and shared data structures.  Modeling language  channels, and locations  constants, data-variables (with bounded domains) and arrays  guards and assignments  templates with local clocks, data-variables, and constants  C subset 2

3 Tool Overview  System Editor  Draw Automata: locations, edges, etc.  Declare global and local constant, variables, and functions  Create instances of system and processes  Simulator  Traces (state transitions): next, prev, replay, open, save, random  Message sequences  Verifier  A<> p : p will inevitable become true, the automaton is guaranteed to eventually reach a state in which p is true. 3

4 Example: Fischer’s Protocol (1)  A well-known mutual exclusion protocol  a timed protocol where the concurrent processes check for both a delay and their turn to enter the critical section using a shared variable id.  Protocol  Starting from the initial location  processes go to a request location, req, if id==0, which checks that it is the turn for no process to enter the critical section.  stay non-deterministically between 0 and k time units in req,  go to the wait location and set id to their pid  wait at least k time units, before entering the critical section CS if it is its turn, i.e. id==pid. 4

5 Example: Fischer’s Protocol (2)  id – shared variable, initialized 0  each process has it’s own timer (for delaying) Process i: while (true) { ; while id != -1 do {} id := i; delay K; if (id = i) { ; id := -1; } 5

6 Example: Fischer’s Protocol 6

7 Locations  Locations: to define the state of automaton.  System state is defined by the locations of all automata, the clock values, and the values of the discrete variables.  Initial Locations  The beginning of the process. Each template must have exactly one initial location.  Urgent Locations  Urgent locations freeze time. This forces the actual process to always make a transition without any delay.  Committed Locations  A committed state cannot delay and the next transition must involve an outgoing edge of at least one of the committed locations. 7

8 Locations and Edges 8  Invariant, selection, guard, update, synchronization n: int[0,5] a!

9 Channels in Uppaal  Used to synchronize two processes.  binary synchronization and blocking  an edge with synchronization label e! emits a signal on the channel e and that the enabled edge with synchronization label e? will synchronize with the emitting process.  Urgent Channels  synchronization via that channel has priority over normal channels and the transition must be taken without delay.  No clock guard allowed on edges using urgent channels.  Broadcast channel  allows 1-to-many synchronization.  sender is not blocked if there is no receiver. 9

10 Declaration in Uppaal  Integer  int num1, num2; // integer variables with default domain.  int a[2][3]; // a multidimensional integer array.  int[0,5] b=0; // with the range 0 to 5 initialized to 0.  Boolean  bool yes = true;//a boolean variable “yes initialize to true.  bool b[8], c[4]; // two boolean arrays b and c, with 8 and 4 elements  Const  const int a = 1;// constant “a” with value 1 of type integer.  const bool No = false;//constant “No” with value false  Clock  clock x, y;//two clocks x and y.  Channel  chan d;// a channel.  urgent chan a, b,c; //urgent channel. 10

11 Verifying Properties (1)  E<> p: there exists a path where p eventually holds.  A[] p: for all paths p always holds.  E[] p: there exists a path where p always holds.  A<> p: for all paths p will eventually hold.  p --> q: whenever p holds q will eventually hold. NamePropertyEquivalent to PossiblyE<> p p is reachable InvariantlyA[] pnot E<> not p p is always truth Potentially alwaysE[] p EventuallyA<> pnot E[] not p p is inevitable Leads top --> qA[] (p imply A<> q) whenever p holds eventually q will hold 11

12 Verifying Properties (2) E<>  A<>  A [ ]  E[ ]       12

13 Verifying Properties (3)  Deadlock (state formula)  A state is a deadlock state if there are no outgoing action transitions neither from the state itself or any of its delay successors.  Reachability  whether there exists a path starting at the initial state, such that a state formula is eventually satisfied (e.g. is it possible for a sender to send a message?)  Safety  Something bad will never happen! (e.g. the temperature of the engine is always (invariantly) under a certain threshold)  (something good is invariantly true)  Liveness  Something good will eventually happen! (e.g. when pressing the on button, then eventually the television should turn on) 13

14 System Model in Uppaal  System:  a list of processes to define a network of timed automata, i.e. concurrent processes.  global declaration  Process:  instantiated from a parameterized template.  Template: definition of a timed automaton  can be parameterized, e.g., automata for 4 tasks  have local declarations of variables, channels, and constants  templates without parameters are instantiated into exactly one process  At a given time-point, transitions are enabled in the order of the process priorities. 14

15 Additional Features in Uppaal  Priority chan priority a < b, c; system P < Q, R;  At a given time-point, local and synchronization transitions are enabled in the order of process and channel priorities.  User defined functions  C/C++/Java style  no recursive call, evaluated atomically and must be deterministic  compiled to byte-code, and executed at verification time on a small embedded stack machine. 15

16 Example: Train Crossing (1) River Crossing Gate Stopable Area [10,20] [7,15] Queue [3,5] 16

17  A railway control system which controls access to a bridge for several trains.  The bridge is a critical shared resource that may be accessed only by one train at a time.  A train can not be stopped instantly and restarting also takes time.  When approaching, a train sends an appr! signal. Thereafter, it has 10 time units to receive a stop signal. This allows it to stop safely before the bridge.  After these 10 time units, it takes further 10 time units to reach the bridge if the train is not stopped.  If a train is stopped, it resumes its course when the controller sends a go! signal to it after a previous train has left the bridge and sent a leave! signal. 17 Example: Train Crossing (2)

18 18 Example: Train Crossing (3)  channels for “appr”, “stop”, “go”, and “leave”  Queries  A[] forall (i : id_t) forall (j : id_t) trains(i).Cross && trains(j).Cross imply i == j  trains(1).Appr --> trains(1).Cross

19 19 Example: Train Crossing (4) Train automata Gate automata

20 Labels in Edges (1)  Edges are annotated with guards, updates, synchronizations and selections  A guard is an expression which uses the variables and clocks of the model in order to indicate when the transition is enabled, i.e. may be fired.  Note that several edges may be enabled at an specific time but only one of them will be fired  An update is an expression that is evaluated as soon as the corresponding edge is fired.  Selections non-deterministically bind a given identifier to a value in a given range.  The other three labels of an edge are within the scope of this binding. 20 (

21 Labels in Edges (2)  Synchronization: the basic mechanism used to coordinate the action of two or more processes.  models for instance the effect of messages causes two (or more) processes to take a transition at the same time.  Regular channel  fired between the processes paired with c! and c? for a channel c and when the guards of the edges are satisfied.  if there are several possible ways to have a pair c! and c?, one of them is non-deterministically chosen.  The update expression on an edge synchronizing on c! is executed first 21

22 Committed Locations  Committed locations  useful for creating atomic sequences  a committed state cannot delay and the next transition must involve an outgoing edge of at least one of the committed locations  if any process is in a committed location, the next transition must involve an edge from one of the committed locations  if several processes are in a committed location at the same time, then they will interleave. 22 a! and b! are atomic

23 Delay Transition and Invariants (1)  Delay transitions model the passing of time without changing the current location.  a delay transition (L, v) --(d)--> (L, v'), where d is a non-negative real, if and only if:  v' = v + d, where v+d is obtained by incrementing all clocks with d.  for all 0 <= d' <= d: v + d' satisfies Inv(L)  L contains neither committed nor urgent locations  no enabled edge with urgent synchronization 23 When will the reset synchronization happen?

24 Delay Transition and Invariants (2) 24

25 Delay Transition and Invariants (3) 25

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