Presentation on theme: "Hypnosis/ Dreaming. Hypnosis Roots tied to Franz Anton Mesmer in 18 th century Mesmer believed he harnessed “animal magnetism” Example: Merely stumbled."— Presentation transcript:
Hypnosis Roots tied to Franz Anton Mesmer in 18 th century Mesmer believed he harnessed “animal magnetism” Example: Merely stumbled upon suggestion, or “mesmerism” James Braid Popularized term Interested in trancelike state that could be induced by mesmerists Thought it could be used as anesthesia
Hypnotic Induction and Phenomena Hypnosis – Systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of suggestion General procedure: Usually, hypnotist suggests to subject that he or she relaxes Hypnotist speaks softly telling them they are getting sleepy Gradually, most subjects succumb and become hypnotized Can everyone be hypnotized? 10% of population do not respond at all 10% exceptionally good subjects
Effects of hypnosis 1.) Anesthesia – Hypnosis can be surprisingly effective in treatment of acute and chronic pain Not widely used 2.) Sensory Distortions and Hallucinations – Subjects may be led to experience auditory or visual hallucinations Ex.) sounds or smells not actually present
Effects of Hypnosis 3.) Disinhibition- Hypnosis can sometimes reduce inhibitions that would normally prevent people from acting in ways they see as immoral or unacceptable Ex.) some hypnotists get subjects to disrobe in public 4.) Posthypnotic Suggestions and Amnesia – Suggestions made during hypnosis can influence later behavior Ex.) posthypnotic amnesia
Theories of Hypnosis 1.) Hypnosis as Role Playing Researchers find no physiological changes during hypnosis Some conclude suggestible people merely act out role of hypnotized subject 2.) Hypnosis as Altered State of Consciousness Effects attributed to special, altered state of consciousness Some feel it is doubtful role playing can explain everything Unlikely patients would endure surgery acting out role of hypnotized person New research indicates changes in brain activity
Reality of Hypnosis 1.) Subjects are capable of saying no or terminating hypnosis 2.) Hypnosis does not necessarily cause people to remember more accurately 3.) Hypnotic suggestions can not enable people to perform otherwise impossible feats of strength, endurance, or mental acuity.
Dreams Researchers conclude most dreams are relatively mundane Humans just more likely to remember more bizarre dreams Dreams are usually self-centered We dream about selves People dream about what is going on in own lives Examples Recent study suggests people may dream about matters they wish to forget What did researchers do?
Culture and Dreams Western cultures largely write off dreams as meaningless and insignificant Many Non-Western cultures Dreams are important sources of info about oneself, future, or the spiritual world. Some cultures view dream events as another type of reality that may be just as important Ex.) New Guinea Arapesh Some basic dream themes are universal Falling, being pursued, having sex
Theories of Dreaming 1.) Sigmund Freud Wish fulfillment - People fill ungratified needs during dreams Ex.) 2.) Problem Solving View- Dreams allow us to engage in creative thinking about problems Dreams not restrained by logic or realism 3.) Activation Synthesis – Dreams are side effects of neural activation A story is created to make sense of neural signals