Presentation on theme: "Dreams, Hypnosis and Meditation States of Consciousness."— Presentation transcript:
Dreams, Hypnosis and Meditation States of Consciousness
What are dreams? The concept of dreaming is currently undergoing revision in scientific circles. Not all in REM sleep Not as bizarre as originally thought People more aware that they are dreaming than originally thought Mental processes during dreams are much like they are when awake
Theories of Dreaming Freud – Dreams as wish fulfillment May be in symbolic rather than literal terms
Rosalind Cartwright – cognitive problem solving view Dreams as problem solving Dreams allow more creative thinking and less censorship therefore people can solve complex problems in their dreams Limited support for this view – just because you are dreaming about something doesn’t mean you are solving the problem.
Activation-Synthesis Model – Hobson and McCarley Dreams are simply byproducts of random subcortical electrical impulses The cortex then attempts to weave these impulses into a story that makes some sense.
There are many other theories of the function of dreams….. But they are all only theories.
Hypnosis First? Practiced by Anton Mesmer in the 18 th century Claimed to heal people but really only used the power of suggestion Proven a charlatan and discredited
The word “hypnotism” was coined in 1843 by James Braid He used hypnotism as an anesthesia for surgery But it could not compete with new more powerful medications for anesthesia
Hypnotic susceptibility Hypnosis typically produces a heightened state of suggestibility Not everyone is equally hypnotizable About 10% of the population can’t be hypnotized. About 10% of the population is highly hypnotizable.
Effects of Hypnosis Anesthesia Sensory distortions and hallucinations May report seeing hearing things that no one else does Disinhibition Generally can’t get someone to do something under hypnosis that they would consider unacceptable. However, hypnosis can lower inhibitions.
Posthypnotic suggestions and amnesia Suggestions made during hypnosis can impact on future behavior This is how hypnosis can be used successfully to treat smoking, overeating, and other behavioral problems.
Is Hypnosis Real? Who knows???? Some say it’s a separate state of consciousness – hypnotic trance Others say its all role playing Dissociative state? Two levels of consciousness simultaneously?
Some plausibility for the dissociative state Highway hypnosis Everyday experiences – don’t remember if you did something or not because you were thinking about something else
Meditation Group of practices that train people to heighten their awareness and bring their mental processes under greater control
Types Yoga Zen Transcendental meditation Most originally had a religious significance
What happens during meditation? Alpha and theta waves predominate (like in drowsiness and stage 1 sleep) Heart rate and respiration rate drop High level of activity in prefrontal cortex Low level of activity in parietal lobe (information processing and sensation)