Presentation on theme: "Linguistics Done by Hessah Saleh Al-Dayel. Supervised by Dr.Khaled Rifaat."— Presentation transcript:
Linguistics Done by Hessah Saleh Al-Dayel. Supervised by Dr.Khaled Rifaat.
The main jop of philogoists are historical development of the language to find out the changing of the history.Swiss scholar Ferdinand de Saussure’s Cours de linguistique generale is considered to be the birth certificate of modern linguistics.He stats some major concepts in Linguistics. Priority of the spoken language. The spoken language is primery and that writing is essentially a means of representing speech in another medium for two reasons; 1- Speech is older than writing. 2- Speech more widespread than writing. Writing intend to represent (implicate) speech to some extent.The representation of speech through writing we will talk about reduction.Moreover,we can not put all the details found in speech through writing.For example in homophones;great – grate same pronounciation with different spelling. Linguisics is a descriptive,not a prescriptive,science. The first question to be discussed is that of “purity”or “correctness”.It should be evident that there are no absolute standerds of ‘’purity” or “correctness”for one reason that is all languages change even written language changes over time.For example language in old classical poetry is different in classical language used in newspaper. The linguistic is interested in all languages. The point here is wrong to call language “primitive”or”civilized”for tow reasons: 1-Any language has its own complex trinsically from transic point of view of structure ot the linguistic point of view. 2-Any language is as rich and complex as any other language.For example;Shakespearian language is more artistic than modern English.Shakespearin language is better from the artistic point of view,more powerful,ful of imagination,ful of expression.So the point is no language call as “pirmitive”or”civilized” through Linguistic point of view.So Linguistic is interested ia all languages. Priority of synchronic description. The distinction synchrony and diachrony refers to the difference intreating language from different point of view.When we take a synchronic point of view,we are looking at a language as we find it at a given period in time.The diachronic gives us the historical angle over a period of time along with changes that occurred in ti.Linguistics give priority to synchronic study because all linguistics intersted in details and it is very difficult to do adiachronic study with keeping details.For example; Micro and macro. The structural approch. The structure compose of units and interrlation between the units.For example NPand VP it concern with formal and not meaning from semantic point of view it’s meaningless.So it has to do only with form and that what we mean by formal approch.It has nothing with a semantic content of forms.It analyzes the language formally.
Langue and parole. The main points of distinction between Langue and Parole LangueParole 1-It is stable and institutionalised. 2-It is passive. 3-It is a social fact and general for community. 4-It contains the negative limits on what a speaker must say. 5-It is sum of properties shared by all speakers of a community. 6-A scientific study can only be based on langue. 7-It is abstraction. 8-It is a collective instrument. 9-It is fixed 1-It is mobile and personal. 2-It is active. 3-It is individual and idiosyncratic. 4- It does not put any such limits. 5-It contains infinite number of individual properties. 6- It is not amenable to scientific study. 7- It is concrete manifestation. 8- It is not a collective instrument. 9- It is free. Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic. In syntagmatic relations the syntagme is seen as any ‘combination of discrete successive units of which there are at least two,with no limit on the possible number.These segments rang form the smallest costruction units for example phonemes, to phrases,and so on.Syntagmatic relation function on the horizonal axis emphasizing the relation criteria a linguist uses in identifying or defining linguistic categories or units.The concept of syntagmatic relation underlines the structure potential of any item under examination. Ferdinand de Saussure potulated the concept of associative relation according to which any link in the chain of speech will suggest other language units to us because the units either resemble or differ from each other in form or meaning.In other words,an item in linguistic construction is capable of triggering other item.For example,the word read can call to mind ther related words,reading,read etc,these words are connected to each other by paradigmatic. The difference between Structuralism and Generative grammar. The principles that were regarded as the very foundation of sound scientific linguistics work.This is generally known as structural linguistics or structuralism.While the term’generative’orginally characterized a conception of grammars as such recursive rules systems.In particular,what distinguishes work in generative grammar is the goal of describing languages systematically,as opposed to the more anecdotal approch of traditional grammers. The main major concepts between structuralism and Ganerative grammer Structuralism 1- A language is primarily speech composed of arbitrary articulated sounds used as means of communication. Generative grammer 1- Grammars should be fully explicit to be precise rule systems that characterize the whole language without relying on any prior knowledge of the language on the part of the reader.Many generative grammarians identify explicitness with formalization.
StructuralismGenerative grammer 2-There is no universal grammar.Each language or dialect has its unique system of patterns and must be explaind and understood according to these patterns. 3-The description and analyses must be scientific and made in physical term ‘only forms and formal devices are to be considered without any mentalistic verbiage. 2- The theory of grammar should make universal claims,the universals of generative grammer tend to be formulated as rather abstract principles of grammatical organization. 3- Grammer should be psychologically relevent Chomsky concerned with the state of the mind – brain of the person who knows a particular language. 4- The analysis must be strictly formal,i.e.meaning should not be used as a tool of analysis.The use of meaning is permissible only in that it is useful in distinguishing and defining units of structure and identifying them. 4- Non-transformational analysis,the basic conception of phrase structure embodied in tree diagrams but most are less radical departures.Instead,thay build on context-free grammer,providiing enhancement designed for the description of natural language. The difference between structuralism and Generative Grammar as exemplified in Semantics. Form and Substance; This destinction refers to the system,on the one hand,that is devised and the actual data which is used or worked upon.The system explins the data,it is a theoritical construct.Phonemes /b/,/d/,/g/ exemplify this.The actual sound produced in certain distinctive manner that differentiates each forms the other comprise the substance.These are accounted for by the concept of phoneme. Sounds produced by the human speech organs can be said to comprise the substance(phonic substance) or content.Its shaping into different functional configurations can be called forms or expressions.Thus the same substance is realized in different forms.Form can be analysed without taking into account the meaning.But semantic,a branch of linguistic,deals only with the content or the substance.Form can be studied form different angles;phonological,morphological,grammatical,syntactical, Saussure had used the terms ‘Significant’ for the external form of the linguistics element,and signific for the meaning or content aspect of it.This duality is an essential attribute of any human activity and highly relevent to linguistics study as well. For example,NP and VP the semantic point of view it’s meaningless.so it has to do only with form.NP can be just a prounon,a noun even a noun+an article.The VP can be simply a verb + a prepositional..etc.