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Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,

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Presentation on theme: "Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ OBJECTIVES After studying Chapter 39, the reader will be able to: 1.Describe the different types of hybrid electric vehicles. 2.Explain how a hybrid vehicle is able to achieve an improvement in fuel economy compared to a conventional vehicle design. 3.Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various hybrid designs. 4.Describe HEV components, including motors, energy sources, and motor controllers. 5.Discuss the operation of a typical hybrid electric vehicle.

3 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ HYBRID VEHICLE A hybrid vehicle is one that uses two different methods to propel the vehicle. A hybrid electric vehicle, abbreviated HEV uses both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor to propel the vehicle. Most hybrid vehicles use a highvoltage battery pack and a combination electric motor and generator to help or assist a gasoline engine.

4 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ HYBRID VEHICLE The internal combustion engine (ICE) used in a hybrid vehicle can be either gasoline or diesel, although only gasoline-powered engines are currently used in hybrid vehicles. An electric motor is used to help propel the vehicle, and in some designs, is capable of propelling the vehicle alone without having to start the internal combustion engine. Background

5 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ HYBRID VEHICLE FIGURE 39-1 View of the components of the General Motors electric vehicle (EV-1).Many of the features of this vehicle, such as regenerative braking and DC-to-DC converters, currently used on hybrid vehicles were first put into production on this vehicle.

6 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ HYBRID VEHICLE FIGURE 39-2 General Motors EV1 shown without the body.

7 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ DRIVING AND OWNING A HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE Driving a hybrid electric vehicle is the same as driving any other conventional vehicle. –In fact, many drivers and passengers are often not aware they are driving or riding in a hybrid electric vehicle.

8 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLES The types of hybrid-electric vehicles include: –Series –Parallel –Series-parallel designs

9 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLES FIGURE 39-3 A drawing of the power flow in a typical series hybrid vehicle.

10 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLES FIGURE 39-4 This diagram shows the components included in a typical series hybrid design. The solid-line arrow indicates the transmission of torque to the drive wheels. The dotted-line arrows indicate the transmission of electrical current.

11 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLES FIGURE 39-5 The power flowin a typical parallel hybrid vehicle.

12 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLES FIGURE 39-6 Diagram showing the components involved in a typical parallel- hybrid vehicle. The solid-line arrows indicate the transmission of torque to the drive wheels, and the dotted-line arrows indicate the flow of electrical current.

13 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLES FIGURE 39-7 A series-parallel hybrid design allows the vehicle to operate in electric motor mode only or in combination with the internal combustion engine.

14 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ BELT ALTERNATOR STARTER SYSTEMS The belt system, commonly called the belt alternator starter (BAS), is the least expensive system that can be used and still claim that the vehicle is a hybrid. –For many buyers, cost is a major concern and the BAS system allows certain hybrid features without the cost associated with an entire redesign of the engine and power train. Consumers will be able to upgrade from conventional models to BAS hybrids at a reasonable cost and will get slightly better fuel economy.

15 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ BELT ALTERNATOR STARTER SYSTEMS FIGURE 39-8 This chart shows what is occurring during various driving conditions in a BAS-type hybrid.

16 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ BELT ALTERNATOR STARTER SYSTEMS FIGURE 39-9 The components of a typical belt alternator-starter (BAS) system.

17 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CAN HYBRIDS USE THE HOV LANE? FIGURE This sticker on a hybrid vehicle allows the driver to use the high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes even if there is only one person in the vehicle as a way to increase demand for hybrid vehicles in California.

18 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ BELT ALTERNATOR STARTER SYSTEMS FIGURE A reversible starter/alternator is used to provide idle stop function to conventional vehicles. This very limited and low cost system is called a micro-hybrid drive.

19 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ BELT ALTERNATOR STARTER SYSTEMS Micro-Hybrid Drive System Common Features of Most Hybrids –Idle stop –Regenerative braking –Power assist –Engine-off drive-electric vehicle mode

20 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ LEVELS OF HYBRID VEHICLES The term hybrid refers to a type of vehicle. However, there are different levels of “hybridization” among hybrids on the market. Different vehicle manufacturers use various hybrid technologies. –Mild Hybrid –Medium Hybrid –Full Hybrid Efficiencies of Electric Motors and Internal Combustion Engines Electric Motors

21 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ SUMMARY 1.Hybrids use two different power sources to propel the vehicle. 2.A mild hybrid with a lower voltage system (36–50 volts) is capable of increasing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions but is not capable of using the electric motor alone to propel the vehicle. 3.A medium hybrid uses a higher voltage than a mild hybrid (140–150 volts) and offers increased fuel economy over a mild hybrid design but is not capable of operating using the electric motor alone. 4.A full or strong hybrid uses a high-voltage system (250–650 volts) and is capable of operating using the electric motor(s) alone and achieves the highest fuel economy improvement of all types of hybrids.

22 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ SUMMARY 5.Early in vehicle history, electric vehicles were more popular than either steam- or gasoline-powered vehicles. 6.Legislation passed in California in 1998, which mandated zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), caused the vehicle manufacturers to start producing electric vehicles. When the law was changed to allow the substitution of other vehicles that produced lower emissions, but not zero, it helped promote the introduction of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). 7.A hybrid vehicle is defined as having two power sources to propel the vehicle. 8.Electric motors are perfect for vehicle use because they produce torque at lower speed, whereas internal combustion engines need to have an increased speed before they produce maximum power and torque.

23 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.What were the major reasons for the development of electric and hybrid electric vehicles? 2.Which type of hybrid electric vehicle is the type manufactured today? 3.What are the advantages and disadvantages of mild, medium, and full hybrid vehicles? 4.Why does a BAS system cost less than the other types of hybrid vehicles? 5.What are the four modes of operation of a typical hybrid vehicle?

24 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 1.The GM EV1 was what type of vehicle? a)Totally electric powered b)A first-generation hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) c)A series-type HEV d)A parallel-type HEV

25 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 1.The GM EV1 was what type of vehicle? a)Totally electric powered b)A first-generation hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) c)A series-type HEV d)A parallel-type HEV

26 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 2.Which type of hybrid uses 36 to 42 volts? a)Mild hybrid b)Medium hybrid c)Full hybrid d)Strong hybrid

27 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 2.Which type of hybrid uses 36 to 42 volts? a)Mild hybrid b)Medium hybrid c)Full hybrid d)Strong hybrid

28 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 3.Which type of hybrid is capable of propelling the vehicle using just the electric motor? a)BAS type b)Strong (full) hybrid c)Medium hybrid d)Mild hybrid

29 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 3.Which type of hybrid is capable of propelling the vehicle using just the electric motor? a)BAS type b)Strong (full) hybrid c)Medium hybrid d)Mild hybrid

30 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 4.About how fast does a motor-generator crank the internal combustion engine? a)About 1000 RPM b)About 2000 RPM c)About 150–300 RPM d)About 400–600 RPM

31 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 4.About how fast does a motor-generator crank the internal combustion engine? a)About 1000 RPM b)About 2000 RPM c)About 150–300 RPM d)About 400–600 RPM

32 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 5.Which type of hybrid electric design costs the least? a)Strong hybrid design b)Series hybrid design c)Parallel hybrid design d)BAS design

33 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 5.Which type of hybrid electric design costs the least? a)Strong hybrid design b)Series hybrid design c)Parallel hybrid design d)BAS design

34 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 6.Which type of hybrid electric vehicle has idle stop operation? a)Strong hybrids only b)Strong, mild, and medium hybrids c)Mild hybrids only d)Medium hybrids only

35 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 6.Which type of hybrid electric vehicle has idle stop operation? a)Strong hybrids only b)Strong, mild, and medium hybrids c)Mild hybrids only d)Medium hybrids only

36 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 7.Technician A says that most hybrids require that they be plugged into an electrical outlet at night to provide the electrical power to help propel the vehicle. Technician B says that the internal combustion engine in an HEV will often stop running when the vehicle is stopped. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

37 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 7.Technician A says that most hybrids require that they be plugged into an electrical outlet at night to provide the electrical power to help propel the vehicle. Technician B says that the internal combustion engine in an HEV will often stop running when the vehicle is stopped. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

38 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 8.Technician A says that most hybrids use the series hybrid design. Technician B says that most hybrids have 42-volt batteries. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

39 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 8.Technician A says that most hybrids use the series hybrid design. Technician B says that most hybrids have 42-volt batteries. Which technician is correct? a)Technician A only b)Technician B only c)Both Technicians A and B d)Neither Technician A nor B

40 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 9.Electric motors are better than an internal combustion engine to propel a vehicle because _________. a)They produce high torque at low speeds b)They do not burn fuel and therefore do not release carbon dioxide into the environment c)They are quiet d)All of the above are correct

41 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 9.Electric motors are better than an internal combustion engine to propel a vehicle because _________. a)They produce high torque at low speeds b)They do not burn fuel and therefore do not release carbon dioxide into the environment c)They are quiet d)All of the above are correct

42 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 10.All of the following are characteristic of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), except _________. a)High voltages (safety issue) b)Lower fuel economy c)Lower amount of carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere d)Quiet

43 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ CHAPTER QUIZ 10.All of the following are characteristic of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), except _________. a)High voltages (safety issue) b)Lower fuel economy c)Lower amount of carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere d)Quiet

44 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ END


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