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ANN MARIE KINNELL ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY & RICHARD CONVILLE COMMUNICATION STUDIES THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI Service Learning as Role Expansion:

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Presentation on theme: "ANN MARIE KINNELL ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY & RICHARD CONVILLE COMMUNICATION STUDIES THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI Service Learning as Role Expansion:"— Presentation transcript:

1 ANN MARIE KINNELL ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY & RICHARD CONVILLE COMMUNICATION STUDIES THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI Service Learning as Role Expansion: Using Role Theory to Understand Service Learning

2 The Ideal

3 Q: How collaborative are we?

4 USM (2004) Community Partners “There needs to be better communication between the University and [Agency] ahead of time discussing expectations.” (Partner #1) “Students have unrealistic expectations when they come here. They’re unprepared and we’re not able to prepare them.” (Partner #2)

5 USM (2004) Faculty “I wanted them to work with people…And I told the agency, basically, that I did not want them to be doing clerical work and that sort of thing.” “I think it would be better, maybe, if I or somebody could actually go in and see what they’re doing, but I don’t think that’s feasible with such a large group and I guess, I don’t know if it’s necessary either.” (Faculty #1)

6 USM (2004) Faculty “But I let them know that it’s up to each site to let you know what they specifically require you to do. And then you tell me about it when I ask you about it in my form, you know, answer me periodically what you’re doing, where are you, what are you expected to do and what’s going on.” (Faculty #2)

7 The Reality “Our goal in this book is to amplify the unheard voices of community organization staff in the service learning relationship. Except in the individual relationships that they have with students and a small number of truly committed faculty, these voices have not been heard— and they have a lot to say.” (Preface, p. vii) Temple University Press

8 The Unheard Voices… citing Bacon (2002) “In short, organization staff members are more willing to view themselves as learners, to link learning to action, and to see learning as a collective activity… …Faculty seem more inclined to think of themselves as the experts—the keepers of the knowledge that they will impart to the students or the agencies with whom they are partnering.” (p.6) Bacon, N Differences in faculty and community partners’ theories of learning. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning 9 (1):34-44.

9 How do we understand what is happening? Need for theory-based understandings of interactions between town and gown An example: Sandmann, Kliewer, Kim, and Omerikwa “Toward Understanding Reciprocity in Community- University Partnerships: An Analysis of Select Theories of Power.” 1 1 Pp in Research for What? Making Engaged Scholarship Matter. edited by Keshan, Holland, and Moely. IAP Inc.

10 Role Theory – Ralph Turner “Role Theory” (2002) in Handbook of Sociological Theory “Role Change” (1990) in Annual Review of Sociology

11 Consists of rights and duties, or of expected behavior, provided these terms are interpreted broadly. Faculty Role

12 System of Roles Faculty Student Role performance of one  role performance of the other

13 Service Learning Community Organization StudentFaculty 1. Enlarges the system of roles 2. Requires role change

14 Service Learning & Role Change Role change: change in the shared conception and execution of typical role performance and role boundaries. ≠ normal individual variability ≠ deviance

15 Role Change– Qualitative Community Organization StudentFaculty Reinterpret meaning Who is the educator? Who is the learner? Who is the benefactor? Who benefits?

16 Role Change – Quantitative Number of duties and rights expands or contracts Gain or loss of power & prestige Community Organization Faculty Preparation Training Monitoring Evaluation 1 1 Conville and Kinnell Relational Dimensions of Service Learning: Common Ground for Faculty, Staff, and Community Partners. Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship

17 Professionalization Maintain role boundaries Maintain power and prestige Faculty Community Partner

18 De-professionalization Competition between roles in system Role expansion = Role encroachment  role contraction  Lose control over boundaries  Lose monopoly over tasks  Lose unique qualities  Lose power and prestige Community Organization Faculty

19 Co-professionalization Community Organization Faculty Preparation Training Monitoring Evaluation Collaboration Role expansion Role overlap

20 Turner (1990): Role Change Turner, Ralph “Role Change.” Annual Review of Sociology, 16: (Figure 1, p. 107)

21 C ONDITIONING F ACTORS IN N EGOTIATION Turner, Ralph “Role Change.” Annual Review of Sociology, 16:

22 C OST OF A LTERNATIVES Turner, Ralph “Role Change.” Annual Review of Sociology, 16:

23 S TRUCTURAL A UTONOMY Turner, Ralph “Role Change.” Annual Review of Sociology, 16:

24 Incumbent Unity & Mobilization Turner, Ralph “Role Change.” Annual Review of Sociology, 16:

25 Client Demand Turner, Ralph “Role Change.” Annual Review of Sociology, 16:

26 Cultural Credibility Turner, Ralph “Role Change.” Annual Review of Sociology, 16:

27 Institutional Support Turner, Ralph “Role Change.” Annual Review of Sociology, 16:

28 Costs to encroached Community partner Turner, Ralph “Role Change.” Annual Review of Sociology, 16:

29 Unity & Mobilization of Encroached Community partner Turner, Ralph “Role Change.” Annual Review of Sociology, 16:

30 Scarcity & Monopolizability of Skills Turner, Ralph “Role Change.” Annual Review of Sociology, 16:

31 Support Structure Turner, Ralph “Role Change.” Annual Review of Sociology, 16:

32 USM (2004) Community Partners “I’ve had a couple of trainings on service learning and stuff. I tried to invite all the service-learning teachers, but none of them showed up. It was weird. I was trying to provide something helpful to them, to the community, so it was frustrating.” (Partner #3)

33 Do faculty perceive this collaboration as deprofession- alization? Turner, Ralph “Role Change.” Annual Review of Sociology, 16:

34 ROLE CHANGE Turner, Ralph “Role Change.” Annual Review of Sociology, 16:

35 USM (2004) Community Partners “We have a little bit different experience because I have been able to meet with the professors beforehand to discuss goals and objectives for our after school programs.” “We’re all on the same page. We do meet to discuss whatever concerns that there may be so we’re able to do that on the front end.” (Partner #4)

36 Conclusion Role theory  Conceptualize process of collaboration  Role change  Co-professionalization  Factors which support (or not) this process Add to role theory  Bi-directionality of model  Encroachment is a two-way street

37 Thank You! Correspondence: Ann Marie Kinnell


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