Presentation on theme: "Conditionals. I. Definition 1. Conditionals in the narrow sense: complex sentences containing conditional clauses 2. Conditionals in the broad sense:"— Presentation transcript:
I. Definition 1. Conditionals in the narrow sense: complex sentences containing conditional clauses 2. Conditionals in the broad sense: sentences expressing ideas of condition
II. Classification of conditionals Conditionals: implicit conditionals explicit conditionals: prototype conditionals: real conditionals unreal conditionals non-prototype conditionals: rhetorical conditionals politeness conditionals
implicit conditionals: Without water, there would be no life on the earth. United, we are strong; divided, we are weak and at the mercy of the boss. A man would have done it in a different manner.
explicit conditionals: If you work hard, you will succeed. You will not succeed unless you work hard. He can use the bicycle on condition that he returns it tomorrow. I would have come had I had the time.
real conditionals: If it rains, I go to work by car. If he was here yesterday, he was in the office. If he goes to England, he will see my friend in London. If my father will (= is willing to) give me permission, I shall spend a few months abroad.
unreal conditionals: If I knew everything under the sun, I would be the wisest man in the world. If he had been here yesterday, he would have been in the office. If he went to England, he would see my friend in London. If my father would (= were willing to) give me permission, I should spend a few months abroad.
differences between real conditionals and unreal conditionals: difference in meaning: real conditions—true to facts likely to be fulfilled unreal conditions—contrary to facts unlikely to be fulfilled
difference in form: in real conditionals— factual use of the present and past tenses in unreal conditionals— hypothetical use of the past tense
Note that it is the speaker who determines whether the condition to be expressed is a real one or an unreal one and that he makes his determination by basing himself either on logic or on his knowledge about the situation involved in the communication.
Compare: a. If I were in your shoes, I should take measures right now. b. Certainly I’m not in your shoes and it is not I who should take measures right now. a. If he comes tomorrow, I will meet him at the airport. b. (I think) Possibly, he will come tomorrow, so I will meet him at the airport. a. If he came tomorrow, I would meet him at the airport. b. (I think) Possibly, he will not come tomorrow, so I won’t meet him at the airport.
III. Meanings and forms of unreal conditionals Different meanings of unreal conditionals: Type I: unreal conditionals denoting conditions contrary to facts at (simultaneous with) the reference time Type II: unreal conditionals denoting conditions contrary to facts before (prior to) the reference time Type III: unreal conditionals denoting conditions contrary to facts or unlikely to be fulfilled after (posterior to) the reference time
Different verb forms in the three types of unreal conditionals conditionals verbs in if-clause verbs in result clause Type I did would do were doing would be doing. Type II had done would have done had been doing would have been doing Type III did would do were to do should do do.
Meanings and verb forms of asymmetrical unreal conditionals Asymmetrical unreal conditionals are unreal conditionals in which the time relationship between the supposition and its reference time is not the same in the two clauses. As a matter of fact, they are different combinations of the conditional and result clauses of the three types of symmetrical unreal conditionals. Theoretically, there are six asymmetrical combinations:
conditionals verbs in if-clause verbs in result clause 1 Type I Type II 2 Type I Type III 3 Type II Type I 4 Type II Type III 5 Type III Type I 6 Type III Type II
Examples: If you were a girl, you would have been invited to the party yesterday. (I+II) If he spoke Russian, he could go to Russia with me next month. (I+III) If the country had not been liberated in 1949, it would not be so strong now. (II+I) If I had failed last time, I would have to take the exam tomorrow. (II+III) If I were to go there tomorrow, I would be packing my bags now. (III+I) If I did not teach tomorrow, I would have gone to the movies last night. (III+II)
Examine the following sentences: I would enjoy the party much more if there hadn’t been quite such a crowd of people there. I would have enjoyed the party much more if there weren’t quite such a crowd of people there. Much as I would like to, I couldn’t lend him the money because I simply didn’t have that much spare cash. Would you be surprised if I had arrived yesterday without letting you know beforehand? Would you have been surprised if I had arrived yesterday without letting you know beforehand? Would you have been surprised if I were to arrive yesterday without letting you know beforehand?
Note that the semantic relationship between the two clauses in an unreal conditional, especially in an asymmetrical one, should be logically sound, and an effective way to judge whether it is logically sound is to transform the conditional into a cause-effect sentence.
a. If he had had more time, he would have lend his help to the work. b. As he had no more time, he didn’t lend his help to the work. a. If the criminal were honest, he would have made a clean breast of the whole thing already. b. The criminal is not honest, so he has not made a clean breast of the whole thing yet. a. If we hadn’t made adequate preparations before the rainy season, we wouldn’t be able to start the project next week. b. We will be able to start the project next week because we have made adequate preparations before the rainy season.
Unreal conditionals without if Had it not been for the fact that she broke her leg, she might have passed the exam. Should you have further problems with your printer, contact your dealer for advice. Were he here now, he would be sitting next to me. Could he lend us a helping hand, he would do so. I began to speculate on what Uncle Macllroy would say, did Hector win the prize this year. Knew I a charm to make him wise, I’d sell all my jewels and buy it.
Meanings and transformation of implicit conditionals a. Turning to the right, you will see the station in the distance. b. If you turn to the right, you will see the station in the distance. a. To hear him talk, you would think he knew everything under the sun. b. If you were to hear him talk, you would think he knew everything under the sun. a. But for your timely help, I could not have completed the work in time. b. If it had not been for your timely help, I could not have completed the work in time. a. A man would have thought differently. b. If she were a man, she would have thought differently.