Presentation on theme: "Vakhsh River Basin (VRB), Tajikistan Inom Sh. Normatov Institute of Water Problems, Hydropower and Ecology AS RT, 734002, Dushanbe, 12, Parvin street,"— Presentation transcript:
Vakhsh River Basin (VRB), Tajikistan Inom Sh. Normatov Institute of Water Problems, Hydropower and Ecology AS RT, 734002, Dushanbe, 12, Parvin street, e-mail: email@example.com
Vakhsh River Basin is one of the main basins which supports the life and livelihoods of several hundred thousands people in Tajikistan. From the beginning of 30s of the last century water resources development has been taking place in VRB. Since Vakhsh is a transboundary river system- other downstream countries of the Central Asia also have strategic interest on is water resources. For example: Vakhsh have of all hydropower resources of Amu Darya basin. Potential power resources of Vakhsh is about 28.6 mln.kWt, it can provide up to 250bln.kWt/hour of electric power per year. Present State-of -art methodology
Main issues a) Significant water losses together with ecological and economic problems in VRB are connected with unsatisfactory condition of infrastructures, hydraulic structures such as irrigation canals and drainage systems. Taking this account, it is necessary to carry out restoration and maintenances of technical facilities and improvement of water related structures and facilities. The local irrigating systems worsened to the greater degree in comparison with regional irrigating systems. The newly established organizations such as agricultural farms and water user associations are economically weak and do not have ability to operate and maintain irrigating systems properly.
Tajikistan can’t fully cover water resources expenses. This is due to an inadequate tariff on water supply (0.15 cents per 1m 3, where as real price is 0.82 cents). Because of this 15-20% reductions in the irrigation network were observed, similarly the loss of pumping system was about to 20-30%. The water losses and poor infrastructure have caused the increasing unreliable water supply system. Water supply system is not only affected by poor infrastructures but also because of poor management and governance. b) Ecology of the VRB is deteriorated in recent years. Drastic decline of hydropower production and reduction of natural gas, coal and other energy resources in 90s caused massive deforestations. From 1992 to 2001, 100 thousand hectares of forest area have been destroyed. Desertification and soil erosion are everywhere in the upstream hilly areas due to deforestation.
c) There are more than 50 thousand registered land slides areas, 1200 of them pose a threat to settlements. humus losses are increasing. Annual soil wash out is about 87 million tons, where as humus loss reaches 11-13 million tons each year. The main environmental problems of VRB are: inadequate access to potable water, land degradation (decrease in fertility) and degradation of ecosystem. d) Water supply and sewage systems are very important to maintain live and livelihood of the population and economy. The main sources of potable water in VRB are open water sources. About 75 % of water comes to systems from such sources. About half of VRB population doesn’t have access to the centralized water supply system and use River and irrigational canals as a of source drinking water. Approximately 90% of urban VRB population is provided with water supply system, but in rural areas this figure does not exceed to 45%. Because of rapid population growth uncontrolled urbanization is everywhere. People even use agricultural lands for settlements. This increases pressure on water resources.
e) The organizational structure of water resources management in Tajikistan is a very complex with multiple structures. Water resources planning, irrigation management are under Ministry of Melioration and Water Resources. There are some overlapping with the Ministry of Energy, which is responsible for hydropower generation in the country. There are several layers and multiple departments with overlapping responsibility for water resources monitoring (data collection and analysis etc..). Water resources in Tajikistan are regulated by its constitution and several articles: Water Code, Land Code, Civil Code, and existing law related to natural resources, local self-management and a number of other government decrees. Responsibilities of the ministries and the departments involved in planning and water resources management show that many functions are overlapped. Strictly centralized authority and multiple departmental interests do not allow the effective use of available human and institutional resources.
Baseline condition in the basin: The Vakhsh River Basin (VRB) is a large basin with territory (31200 km 2 ) located in the highest part of Central Asia. The upper part of VRB is located on the northern part of Pamir within the Pamir- Alay’s ridges, the medium and lower parts of this catchments are located in semi-arid zone of the Southern Tajikistan. Vakhsh valley is located in the southwest part of Tajikistan at an altitude of 329-445 m above sea level. (a) Geographical Characteristics:
Geographical longitude and latitude of Vakhsh River Basin: At a source of the river Vakhsh: 38 о 42 I 10 II northern latitude 38 о 42 I 10 II northern latitude 70 о 04 I 00 II east longitude 70 о 04 I 00 II east longitude At downstream Vakhsh river outlet: 37 о 02 I 00 II northern latitude 37 о 02 I 00 II northern latitude 38 о 20 I 05 II east longitude 38 о 20 I 05 II east longitude
. In the Vakhsh valley the monthly average air reaches 28,4 о С - 31,4 о С, and annual average is 15,7 о С -16,7 о С. There are about 569 mountain lakes with the total area of 17,37 km 2 in the VRB. They are located at the height of 2800-3500 m and basically represent small reservoirs of some square meters up to 1km 2. VRB is characterized by rather high silt and sediment load (2900 t/km 2 ). Average value of turbidity of the Vakhsh river exceeds 4000 g/m 2. High values of the sediment and silt load are explained by loose mineral rock in the water courses and lack of vegetation cover in the VRB.
The Vakhash is the main river of Republic of Tajikistan, merging with Pyanj river it forms Amu-Darya - the biggest river of the Central Asia. The Vakhsh is 691km long. The Vakhash has a basin area of 39160 km 2 -almost is a quarter of Tajikistan. The Vakhsh River has 6276 tributaries and 20 lakes covering the total area of 4 km 2. Glacier and snow are the main source of Vakhash. More than 40 % of its flow comes during July to September from thawed glaciers. Thawing of seasonal snows, springs and rains constitute Vakhash flow. The mean discharge at the head structure of the Vakhsh main canal is 2273 m 3 per second, the maximum discharge is about 4500 m 3 per second, and the minimum discharge is 1420 m 3 per second. March to October flow constitutes about 87 % of annual flow.
Table 17. Sub basin charactersistics of VRB rivers Riverinflow Length, km Basin area, level difference, m km2km2 sourcesilk KizilsuSurkhob(r)*254838038001835 MuksuSurkhob (l)*88707027141835 SurkhobVaksha (r)146728618351163 KoksuSurkhob (l)11129418231708 YarkhichSurkhob (r)48117033091570 YasmanSurkhob (r)3020834001568 SarbogSurkhob (r)81178035801246 SangikarSurkhob (r)4229134001242 ObikhingoyVakhsh(l)196666029601163 ObimazorObikhingoy (l)38103032002168 RangovObikhingoy (r)6278132101958 SyrkhsuObikhingoy (l)3626638001446 Note: *(r) - right (l) - left
(b) Demographical features: The basic demographic characteristics and agricultural production in VRB are presented in tables 3-15. Table 3, region, population density, and rural urban population Name of territories Territory, th. k m 2 Population per k m 2 % of urban population % of rural population Men, th. person Women, th. person Number of settlements Kumsangir region1.0922.287.842.942 Kolkhozabad region0.915413.386.763.462.885 Jilikul region1.2686.493.636.736.554 Vakhsh region1.013611.388.763.162.588 Bokhtar region0.63167.292.887.387127 Khuroson region0.9877.093.036.135.667 Jomi region0.61968.391.753.752.672
Average per capita income 1998 y.1999 y.2000 y.2001 y.2002 y. Somoni Total7.2510011.310016.910024.310029.7100 labour income2.1729.63.1832.55.7033.79.9240.812.943.2 pensions, prize, scholarship 0.11.40.171.220.127.116.11.20.51.7 compensation, charity 0.040.60.3 0.050.30.060.21.03.7 property income0.010.10.010.10.100.10.010.10.020.1 income generated by property sale 0.60.80.020.20.040.20.090.40.10.3 other cash flow1.9318.104.22.168.4314.32.6510.92.578.7
Gross domestic product 1998 y.1999y.2000y.2001y.2002y, GDP in acting prices mln. somoni 1025.21345.01806.72528.83365.5 Temp of height in year %105.3103.7108.3110.2109.5 Per capita, somoni169.6220.5292.1398.7522.8 In dollar of USA139.5144.7156.7172.3189.0 Structure of GDP production (%) Production of goods50.052.854.653.652.5 Service42.439.937.137.337.6 Taxes22.214.171.124.19.9
Structure of GDP uses (%) Charges of the end use90.981.179.085.281.6 Gross accumulation18.217.411.216.817.6 The clean export-126.96.36.199-1.90.8 Production of GDP on filed of economy GDP in acting prices, mln. somoni 1025.21345.01806.72528.83365.5 Production of goods513.2710.8986.51354.91767.6 Service437.5540.8675.2943.51265.1 Subsidies128.04.56.17.9 Gross domestic product [continued] 1998 y.1999 y.2000 y.2001y.2002y.
Volume of industrial production (in prices 2002, th. somoni) 19981999200020012002 2002 in % to 1998 Khatlon region434836432227443898515365574694132.1 Kumsangir region997910059102001086311119111.4 Jilikul region------ Vakhsh region1435513365182831875823353162.6 Bokhtar region2009618692 1188231906823991119.3 Khuroson region11370115759179965611553101.6 Sarband city1743615291199851496923517134.8 Danghara region311554736015614175152,4 Nurek region114150122826110912112797122150107.0 Kurgant Tube1002477186398922019322192.7 Total221855222399225743263205295310133.1 DRD67313583140298870111083691182685175.6
Volume of industrial production (in prices 2002, th. somoni) [continued] 19981999200020012002 2002 in % to 1998 on DRD of VRB industrial production not carried out Roghun city------ Tavildara region------ Nurabad region------ Rasht region------ Tajikabad------ Jirgatol district------ Total673135831402988701ГИ083691182685175.6 Total on basin8949901053801121444413715741477995165.1
Production of grain (thous. tone) [continued] 19981999200020012002 2002 to 1998 % DRD78,485,297,996136,9174,6 Roghun city 1,52,11,21,62,3153,3 Tavildara region0,60,80,70,51,22р Nurabad region3,93,51,92,62,769,2 Rasht region55,63,12,95,7114 Tajikabad region2,92,71,92,75,6193,1 Jirgatol district3,74,42,82,14,8129,7 Total17,619,711,612,422,3126,7 Total on basin137.5125.4142.2124.6155.9113.3
Irrigation in VRB № Name of regions of VRB Area of regions, ha irrigated land, ha Mechanized irrigation, ha 1Dzhirgatalskyi456147756774 2Tajikabad747853971- 3Rasht35370463981496 4Tavidara4781351444- 5Nurobad828302620875 6Ragunsikyi63265630- 7Nureksikyi30773574270 8Yavansikyi931852697913411 9Khodzhamastonsikyi90199190361379 10Sarbandsikyi139862380
Irrigation in VRB [continued] № Name of regions of VRB Area of regions, ha irrigated land, ha Mechanized irrigation, ha 11Gozmaliksikyi88499105332851 12Vakhshsikyi168878215072034 13Kolkhozabadsikyi1337422297215637 14Dzhilkulsikyi1045361974410001 15Kumsangirsikyi110845224508542 16Bakhtarsikyi59766260103438 17faizabadsikyi 140 18Dangarinskyi 1691 19Kabodianskiyi 711 Total on VRB240437519481562550
(c) Land Forms and Land uses: Areas and percentages of principle land uses in the VRB Land use typeArea (m 2 )Percentage (%) Irrigation land20230000006.48 Pasture880000000028.20 Resident2404375000077.06 Reservoir6200000001.99 Lake173700000.06 Glaciers315000000010.10 Mountains1872000000060 Forests3120000001.0
Average glacier contribution to Vakhsh river and its tributaries (1990s) River Area, km 2 Area of glaciations, km 2 Degree of glaciation, % Annual average flow, mln. m 3 Glacier contribution, Volume mln. m 3 134567 Muksu6550208831.932441685 Vakhsh20000313815.7102773065 Vakhsh312003850,412.3190975040 Yarkhich1170106,891588302 Sorbog1760105,662180338 Sangikar2918,9337819 Pitaukul53161,812960221 Tamdikul39890,822.5507198 Obikhingoy1880398,221.21568685 Obikhingoy6600712,410.868831522 Obimazor1030171,516.7832283
Hydrochemical regime of Vakhsh river YearMineralization, mg/l Oxygen regime, % Nitrate,мg/l 1984 312-951 (“Tigrovaya balka”) 55-88 0,05 (Kalininabad) 1985 342,7-946 (Kurgan -Tube) 52-83 0,042 (“Tigrovaya balka”) 1986 260,6-2177,450-100 0,97 (Kalininabad) 1987194,1-1798,244-129 0,028 (Nurek) 1988 259,9-14806 (Kurgan Tube) 55-107 0,09 (Kalininabad) For all period 194-2177,444-1290,097
The main sources of drinking water in VRB are open water sources (rivers, irrigational canals, small reservoirs). Approximately 75 % of water in the supply systems comes from such sources. The quantity of water consumed for industrial needs (normative) is 13633,8 m 3 / day. The amount of water consumed for residential needs (normative) is 119,25m 3 /day or 38947,9 m 3 /year. Waste water production from residential area is 75,4 m 3 /daily and is collected through sewage system of Kurgan -Tube city. The water volume used for household needs makes about 6 % of the total water supply which is about 1.2 billion m 3. Approximately the ratio is typical for VRB. The main environmental problems for VRB are: lack of access to good quality water, soil degradation (reduction in fertility) and ecosystems degradation. Water quality deterioration is connected with the absence of necessary treatment facilities, and inappropriate and inadequate management of water resources for rapidly growing population.
(b) Environmental Characteristics : It is observed that VRB rivers are highly mineralized with chlorides and sulfates. VRB rivers are polluted with minerals fertilizers and pesticides from the irrigated land.
Results of chemical analyses Vakhsh river (dates carrying out of analyses May - June, 2004) Name of ingredients Limit permissible concentration(LPC) Up to Nurek water reservoir Mixing of Vakhsh Yavan tunnel Sarband (Vakhsh magisterial canal ) Kurgan Tube (up merging with Yavansu river) Yavansu (up merging with Vakhsh river) Vakhsh (1 km. after merging with Yavansu) Ph6,5-8,58,18,26,57,27,67,2 Color, degree200 42491440960 Mineralization, mg/l1000 830400 1290700 Chloride, mg/l35051,986,77272,493,2**72,8 Nitrogen ammonia, mg/l20,050,240,010,240,960,7
Results of chemical analyses Vakhsh river (dates carrying out of analyses May - June, 2004) [continued] Nitrogen nitrate, mg/l450,620,152,50,81,41,1 Nitrogen nitrite, mg/l10,090,02 0,060,04 Fluoride, mg/l1,5 0,580,09 0,12 Phosphor, general, mg/l0,1 0,020,080,060,04 Sulfate, mg/l500153 195283630 Copper, mg/l10,3 0,740,460,540,42 Iron general, mg/l0,30,04 0,080,050,060,11 Iodides, mg/l0,2 0,17 Chromium 6-th valiant, mg/l 0,01
Characteristics of waste water Vakhsh Nitrogen plant NameUnitsLPCpure water flow (industrial) Nitrogen ammoniaMg/l0,522 Nitrogen nitrateMg/l0,02 Nitrogen nitriteMg/l9,11,2 Oil production’sMg/l0,050,2
Water quantity of Vakhsh river (area located of Vakhsh Nitrogen plant) Name of ingredients UnitsLPC Before sewage system after sewage mixing The stratum substance mg/l1513,5 General mineralization mg/l1000245251 Nitrogen ammoniamg/l0,50,2060,21 Nitrogen nitratemg/l0.020,02 Nitrogen nitritemg/l9,12,62,7 Oil production’smg/l0,050,13
The swampy area in irrigated land of VRB covered 13,444 ha in 2003 an increment of 958 ha is observed in comparison with 1990. Area affected by salinization (salinity) covers 7,426 ha. Salinity is observed in both groundwater and irrigated areas covering 1182 ha. Presently 22,052 ha of irrigated area is not in satisfactory condition with an increment of 261 ha from 1990. In VRB, 1,375 ha of irrigated land was not used in 2003, which includes 328 ha affected by salinity and water logging, 410 ha due to water shortages and 160 ha because of soil erosion. In 2003 168,9 thousand ha irrigated area (85%) required improvements in irrigations systems. Drainage system was necessary for 2,736 ha, where as improvements in collectors and drainage required for 12,011 ha of irrigated area. It is necessary to wash out 11,618 ha of heavily salted area. Similarly 95 ha needs protection from flooding. The potential pasture area in VRB is equal 24 % the Tajik Pasture land (880 thousand ha), 60% of which is located in the mountain region. Water insufficiency is the greatest barrier for maximum utilization of available mountain pastures.
List of Hydropower stations (HPS) in use and under construction in the VRB №Name Parameters Capacity, MWt Production, TWt.h/year Head, m Useful Volume of reservoir,km 3 Cascade of HPS on Vakhsh river 1Roghun**360013,33008,6 2Shurabad8003550,02 3Nurek*300011,22504,5 4Baypazin*6002,5540,08 5Sangtuda- 1**6702,7580,02 6Sangtuda- 22201190,005 7Golovnaya*2401,3260,004 8Perepadnaya*300,25390 9Centralnaya*180,11220 Total917835,36 13,229
List of Hydropower stations (HPS) in use and under construction in the VRB [continued] №Name Parameters Capacity, MWt Production, TWt.h/year Head, m Useful Volume of reservoir,km 3 Cascade HPS on Obikhingoy river 1Sangvor80022681,5 2Urfatin8502,12800,01 3Shtienskaya6001,51500,01 4Evtachskaya80021850,02 5Kaftarguzarskaya6501,71400,01 Total37009,3 1,55 Cascade of HPS on Surkhob river 1Dzhadbulak60022001,4 2Sayronak5002,21350,01 3Gorgenskaya6002,71380,02 * - working, ** - building1497853,36 16,229
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