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Roundtable for ASEAN Chief Justices on Environment

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1 Roundtable for ASEAN Chief Justices on Environment
Citarum River Basin and Water Resources Challenges Roundtable for ASEAN Chief Justices on Environment Dr. Thomas Panella Principal Water Resource Specialist Asian Development Bank 7 December 2011 Jakarta, Indonesia

2 CITARUM AT GLANCE The biggest and the longest river in West Java Province Catchment Area: 6,614 Km2 River basin management area:13,000 Km2 Average rainfall: 2,300 mm/year Average flow: 5.7 billon/m3/year Citarum covers : 9 districts (1)Kab. Bandung,(2)Kab.Bandung Barat, (3)Kab.Cianjur (4)Kab.Purwakarta, (5)Kab.Karawang, (6) Kab.Bekasi, (7)Kab.Subang , (8)Kab.Indramayu, and (9) Kab.Sumedang and 3 cities: (1)Kota Bekasi, (2)Kota Bandung, and (3)Kota Cimahi

3 CITARUM AT GLANCE Population along the river over 10 million
(50% Urban and growing rapidly) Total population in the basin: 15,303,758 (50% Urban) (Data BPS 2009) Total Population in West Java 41,483,729 (Gov. West Java Statistic) Supplies water for 80% of Jakarta citizens (16 m3/s) Irrigated area: +300,000 Ha Reservoirs: Saguling million m3 Cirata ,165 million m3 Jatiluhur ,000 million m3 Electricity output: 1,400 Mwatt Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum

4 Specific Challenges Population Growth and Urbanization
Watershed Degradation, Erosion & Sedimentation Flooding and Water-Related Disasters Excessive Groundwater Exploitation Water Pollution (industrial, domestic, organic and solid waste) Coastal Degradation Water Allocation, infrastructure and climate change Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum

5 Watershed Degradation, Erosion and Sedimentation
Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum Solutions include: Improved spatial planning, zoning regulation and enforcement Conservation, land rehabilitation and reforestation Sustainable farming practices and provision of alternative sources of livelihoods Wayang Mount Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum


7 Severe and Recurrent Flooding
Flood in DayeuhkolotKab. Bandung (Pikiran Rakyat, Friday, 19 Feb 2010)



10 Excessive Groundwater Exploitation
Subsidence is severe and basin wide: From 1988 more than 3-4 meter subsidence in some places Severe impact on river hydraulics (and flooding) Irreversible aquifer damage Solutions include: Improved groundwater regulation , licensing and enforcement Ground water pricing Groundwater recharge Increase surface water supply especially for industry

Solutions Include: Improved regulation, licensing and enforcement of water quality standards Improved monitoring Industrial and domestic waste water treatment plants Provision of sanitation facilities Low cost water treatment technology 1,500 industries in Bandung and surrounding area: 280 ton of chemical waste dump into Citarum everyday Lack of sanitation and waste water treatment facilities Water quality monitoring in the late 1990s shows that annual average of BoD concentrations as high as 300 mg/liter. Solution Include: Law enforcement Industrial and domestic waste water treatment plants Provision of sanitation facilities Low cost water treatment technology Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum

12 ORGANIC WASTE 190 Tons of organic waste from farming
dump into the river everyday (8,000 cows produce 24 kg of waste each) Solutions include: Organic fertilizer production to supply downstream farms Biogas generation Improved waste management Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum

13 SOLID WASTE The annual uncollected garbage that invariably ends up accumulating in the drainage system and rivers amounts 500,000 m3/year Solutions Include: Improved solid waste management regulation , zoning and enforcement Development of solid waste facilities and collection services Recycle, Reuse, Reduce (3R) facilities Behavioral changes Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum

14 Citarum Tributary, Citepus river, Bale Endah, 2010



17 Ciwalengke Village, Majalaya, 2011
Photo by: Adhi Wicaksono/Doc Cita-Citarum Ciwalengke Village, Majalaya, 2011

18 COASTAL DEGRADATION Coastal abrasion Biodiversity degradation
Increased flooding Solutions include: Mangrove rehabilitation and improved coastal ecosystems Flood control Coastal protection through dykes and coastal infrastructure

19 WATER USAGE Utilized 7,5 billion m3/year = 57,9%
(Citarum ± 6 billion m3/year And other rivers ± 1.5 billion m3/year Potential for utilization ± 5,45 billion m3/year = 42,1% Urban water (local need) = 0,3% Industriy= 2,0% Drinking water For Jakarta = 6,0% Others = 5,0% Irrigation= 86,7%

Saguling and Cirata dams operated by Indonesia power and Juanda dam operated by PJTII Greater coordination required Updating of the operation procedures for flood and drought

21 Jatiluhur reservoir, Purwakarta District, 2010
Photo by: Diella Dachlan/Doc Cita-Citarum Klari Weir, Karawang District, 2011 Walahar Weir, Karawang District, 2010 Photo by: Ng Swan Ti/Doc Cita-Citarum

22 Asia – Water Insecurity and Climate Change
This figure, from U. Adelade & other sources, summarizes the geographic locations of likely CC impacts 22

23 THANK YOU Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum

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