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Roundtable for ASEAN Chief Justices on Environment Dr. Thomas Panella Principal Water Resource Specialist Asian Development Bank 7 December 2011 Jakarta,

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Presentation on theme: "Roundtable for ASEAN Chief Justices on Environment Dr. Thomas Panella Principal Water Resource Specialist Asian Development Bank 7 December 2011 Jakarta,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Roundtable for ASEAN Chief Justices on Environment Dr. Thomas Panella Principal Water Resource Specialist Asian Development Bank 7 December 2011 Jakarta, Indonesia Citarum River Basin and Water Resources Challenges

2 CITARUM AT GLANCE The biggest and the longest river in West Java Province Catchment Area: 6,614 Km 2 River basin management area:13,000 Km 2 Average rainfall: 2,300 mm/year Average flow: 5.7 billon/m 3 /year Citarum covers : 9 districts (1)Kab. Bandung,(2)Kab.Bandung Barat, (3)Kab.Cianjur (4)Kab.Purwakarta, (5)Kab.Karawang, (6) Kab.Bekasi, (7)Kab.Subang, (8)Kab.Indramayu, and (9) Kab.Sumedang and 3 cities: (1)Kota Bekasi, (2)Kota Bandung, and (3)Kota Cimahi

3 Population along the river over 10 million (50% Urban and growing rapidly) Total population in the basin: 15,303,758 (50% Urban) (Data BPS 2009) Total Population in West Java 41,483,729 (Gov. West Java Statistic) Supplies water for 80% of Jakarta citizens (16 m 3 /s) Irrigated area: +300,000 Ha Reservoirs: -Saguling 982 million m 3 -Cirata 2,165 million m 3 -Jatiluhur 3,000 million m 3 Electricity output: 1,400 Mwatt Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum CITARUM AT GLANCE

4 Specific Challenges Population Growth and Urbanization Watershed Degradation, Erosion & Sedimentation Flooding and Water-Related Disasters Water Pollution (industrial, domestic, organic and solid waste) Excessive Groundwater Exploitation Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum Coastal Degradation Water Allocation, infrastructure and climate change

5 Wayang Mount 5 Watershed Degradation, Erosion and Sedimentation Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum Solutions include: Improved spatial planning, zoning regulation and enforcement Conservation, land rehabilitation and reforestation Sustainable farming practices and provision of alternative sources of livelihoods Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum

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7 Severe and Recurrent Flooding Flood in DayeuhkolotKab. Bandung (Pikiran Rakyat, Friday, 19 Feb 2010)

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10 Subsidence is severe and basin wide: From 1988 more than 3-4 meter subsidence in some places Severe impact on river hydraulics (and flooding) Irreversible aquifer damage Solutions include: Improved groundwater regulation, licensing and enforcement Ground water pricing Groundwater recharge Increase surface water supply especially for industry Excessive Groundwater Exploitation

11 INDUSTRIAL AND DOMESTIC POLLUTION 1,500 industries in Bandung and surrounding area: 280 ton of chemical waste dump into Citarum everyday Lack of sanitation and waste water treatment facilities Water quality monitoring in the late 1990s shows that annual average of BoD concentrations as high as 300 mg/liter. Solution Include: Law enforcement Industrial and domestic waste water treatment plants Provision of sanitation facilities Low cost water treatment technology Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum Solutions Include: Improved regulation, licensing and enforcement of water quality standards Improved monitoring Industrial and domestic waste water treatment plants Provision of sanitation facilities Low cost water treatment technology

12 ORGANIC WASTE 190 Tons of organic waste from farming dump into the river everyday (8,000 cows produce 24 kg of waste each) Solutions include: Organic fertilizer production to supply downstream farms Biogas generation Improved waste management Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum

13 SOLID WASTE Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum The annual uncollected garbage that invariably ends up accumulating in the drainage system and rivers amounts 500,000 m 3 /year 13 Solutions Include: Improved solid waste management regulation, zoning and enforcement Development of solid waste facilities and collection services Recycle, Reuse, Reduce (3R) facilities Behavioral changes

14 Citarum Tributary, Citepus river, Bale Endah, 2010

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17 Photo by: Adhi Wicaksono/Doc Cita-Citarum Ciwalengke Village, Majalaya, 2011

18 Coastal abrasion Biodiversity degradation Increased flooding Solutions include: Mangrove rehabilitation and improved coastal ecosystems Flood control Coastal protection through dykes and coastal infrastructure COASTAL DEGRADATION

19 Urban water (local need) = 0,3% Industriy= 2,0% Irrigation= 86,7% Others = 5,0% Drinking water For Jakarta = 6,0% Utilized 7,5 billion m3/year = 57,9% (Citarum ± 6 billion m3/year And other rivers ± 1.5 billion m3/year Potential for utilization ± 5,45 billion m3/year = 42,1% WATER USAGE

20 THREE CASCADES RESERVOIR OPERATIONS Saguling and Cirata dams operated by Indonesia power and Juanda dam operated by PJTII Greater coordination required Updating of the operation procedures for flood and drought

21 Photo by: Diella Dachlan/Doc Cita-Citarum Photo by: Ng Swan Ti/Doc Cita-Citarum Walahar Weir, Karawang District, 2010 Jatiluhur reservoir, Purwakarta District, 2010 Klari Weir, Karawang District, 2011

22 Asia – Water Insecurity and Climate Change

23 THANK YOU Photo Doc: Cita-Citarum


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