Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Management of Scarce Resources in the Coastal Zone SMART ICA3 – 2001-1003 Kick-off Meeting CEDARE, Cairo, 5-6 January, 2003 Case Study Jordan."— Presentation transcript:
Sustainable Management of Scarce Resources in the Coastal Zone SMART ICA3 – 2001-1003 Kick-off Meeting CEDARE, Cairo, 5-6 January, 2003 Case Study Jordan
Introduction Jordan has a surface area of (89.544) square kilometers with population of about (5) million and rate growth of (3.4%). Jordan water resources are scare and are directly depending on the annual rainfall, which varies from year to year and also varies according to the locality from (50)mm in the eastern part to (600)mm in the northern and western mountains. Jordan is characterized by a pronounced scarcity of renewable fresh water resources. It is considered among few countries of the world with limited water resources. Due to the population growth, the available renewable water resources per capita are falling from around (188)m³/capita/year at present (2000) to (95)m³/cap/year by the year 2025. The water resources of Jordan consist of surface and ground water resources and treated wastewater used in irrigation. Renewable water resources are estimated at about (940) MCM per annum, (280) MCM per year ground water and (600) MCM per year surface water. An additional (143) MCM per year is expected to be available from fossil aquifers and about (75) MCM from brackish aquifers after desalination. Available treated wastewater from irrigation is about (70) MCM per year.
Population growth, human settlement and socio-economic development will increase the demand on the limited water resources with priority in water allocation given to the domestic and industrial sector. Agriculture will suffer the most from water deficiency. One option to alleviate such suffering is to use non conventional resources like treated wastewater for irrigation. Wastewater is essentially water that has been fouled by communities through its use in the various daily activities such as cooking and washing. Domestic sewage is mainly composed of human body wastes and sludge. Industrial sewage comprises numerous and various chemicals including those toxic to humans and nature. Sewage is extremely hazardous in content mainly because of the number of disease causing organism and toxic matter that it contains.
Wastewater Treatment. Treated wastewater generated at seventeen existing wastewater treatment plants is discharged into various water courses and flows to the Jordan Valley where it is reused for irrigation. About (73) MCM of treated wastewater are effectively discharged into the watercourses or are used directly in irrigation. Wastewater quantity is increasing with population growth, By the year 2020 when the population is projected to about (9.9) million and the percentage of sewage service to population increase from current (50%) to about (65%), about (265.3) MCM per year of wastewater are expected to be generated.
Figure (1) shows the distribution of treatment plants in Jordan.
Table (1) shows the expected treated wastewater quantities till 2020
Advantage of Wastewater Reuse. Treated wastewater is now being considered as new source of water that can be used for different purposes such as agricultural and aquaculture production, industrial uses, recreational purposes and artificial recharge. Using wastewater for agriculture production will help in alleviating food shortages and reduce the gap between supply and demand. The interest in the reuse of treated effluent has accelerated significantly in the world since 1980 for many reasons; 1.Expansion of sewerage system networks and the increasing number of treatment plants. 2.Production of large quantities of wastewater which makes its use of agriculture viable alternative. 3.Wastewater is a rich source of nutrient and can reduce the use of fertilizers. 4.The reuse is a safe disposal of wastewater which will reduce the environment and health risks. 5.The treatment of wastewater to be used for irrigation is cheaper than that needed for production of the environment. Regulation to discharge water into sea and streams or groundwater recharge are more strict than reuse for irrigation.
Development of Sanitation Services. Until 1969, cesspools, septic tanks and other on-site methods were used for the disposal of wastewater. This practice coupled with rapid and uncontrolled population growth resulted in major environmental problems especially surface and groundwater pollution. The government of Jordan has realized the magnitude of the problem and the necessity to build a safe disposal system for wastewater. In 1969, the municipality of Amman completed a sanitary sewage system to serve the population of Amman with (500,000) people. This system was associated with a conventional activated sludge plant with a capacity of (60,000) m³/day and a BOD loading of (18,000) kg/d. The design effluent standard BOD was (20)mg/L and the effluent was discharged to the Zerqa river a major tributary of the Jordan river. Due to the high strength of raw sewage (BOD 5 > 600 mg/L), the effectiveness of the plant was drastically reduced to the extent that the actual capacity became only (30,000) m³/d by the year 1980. The operation under high hydraulic and organic loading conditions resulted in an effluent that could not meet the standard of (BOD 5 <20mg/L) and low efficiency in the process of solid processing and disposal. As such, the quality of surface and groundwater was deteriorated due to the use of low quality water for irrigation downstream.
In the 1980s, the government built a major wastewater stabilization pond (WSP) system for the Greater Amman Area and other treatment facilities in major cities and towns in the country totaling (17) treatment plants. By the year 1999, about (50%) of the plants were overloaded including the largest WSP of Amman. The government has completed a master plan study to upgrade and expand existing facilities and to build new plants in the country aiming at (90%) coverage of the population by the year 2010. In Jordan a diverse range of wastewater treatment plants are used in various cities ranging from conventional treatment methods and wastewater stabilization ponds in large communities to simple treatment technologies in small communities. The mostly used conventional methods are: 1.Stabilization Ponds: This technology is used in the waste treatment plant of As- Samra, Mafraq, Ramtha, Ma`an, Madaba and Aqaba. 2.Activated Sludge: It is used in the treatment plants of Irbid, Salt, Jarash, Tafilah, Fuhis and Baqa`a. 3.Trickling Filters: Used in the wastewater treatment plants of Karak, Kufranja, West Irbid and Abu Nusair. 4.Aerated Lagoons: Used only in Wadi Essir wastewater treatment plant.
Table (2a): Wastewater treatment Plants, Daily Average Effluent, 2001 Table (2a) shows the wastewater treatment plants, daily average effluent (2001) and Table (2b) shows the treatment method, design parameters, average daily influent and the organic and solids concentration (1999) of the (17) major wastewater treatment plants.
Table( 2b); Treatment methods, total influent, design parameters of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan(1999)
Table(3); Wastewater Treatment Plants Cost of Treatment (Fils/m³) (1999 ) Table (3) shows the total cost of wastewater treatment in different wastewater treatment plants in Jordan, the cost includes depreciation cost, salary, electricity, operation and maintenance, chemicals, sludge disposal, contracted testing, and others. The cost of treated unit volume of effluent ranges from (0.01) JD/m³ in large stabilization pond of As-Samra to (0.24) JD/m³ in small activated sludge plant of Tafilah
Wastewater Reuse In Agriculture. Historically, the concept of using sewage effluents for irrigation can be traced back to more than 2000 years ago. When crops in Greece were irrigated with such effluent the practice has been prevalent in china for centuries. In Europe, farming with sewage was common practice in Germany as early as the sixteenth century. The first recorded use of sewage effluent for agriculture in the USA appears to have been in the late 1870s. In Jordan the indirect reuse of wastewater effluent has been practiced for a number of years, as it has been discharged into the main wadis and mixed with the surface flow. Farmers along the banks of these wadis used to pump water or direct the flow of the wadis and reuse it for unrestricted irrigation. Natural recharge to aquifers takes place through wadis beds.
In Jordan the direct and controlled reuse of treated effluent has been increasing since 1985. At the national level, the total production of the treated wastewater is about (73) MCM as of 1999. Nearly all these amounts are being reused mainly for agriculture (95%), about (3%) for groundwater recharge and (2%) for industrial uses. This practice is a result of the government policy so as to conserve water as a scarce and valuable resource. The government of Jordan has introduced new legislation on effluent quality to control its use considering public health issues and protection of the environment.
It is mandatory that all treatment plant projects must include a fully designed and feasible reuse scheme. Below is a brief description of reuse schemes that are currently in operation. Zarqa River Basin Scheme Is the largest reuse system in operation in Jordan. There are four treatment plants located in the basin that discharge its treated effluent to Zarqa River where it is collected downstream at King Talal Dam and used for restricted irrigation in the southern section of the Jordan Valley. The largest treatment plant is As-Samra waste stabilization pond treating about (60) MCM where most of it joins the flow of Zarqa River. A small portion (2%) of this effluent is used for on-site irrigation of about (300) hectares planted with olive trees, fodder crops and forest trees. The other plants (Jarash, Abu Nusair, and Baqa’a) discharge about (4.0) MCM to the same river. King Talal Reservoir with a capacity of (85) MCM collects surface runoff and treated sewage effluent which results in quality variation from summer to winter. The total irrigated area by the reservoir water release is about (10,000) hectares.
AqabaWSP The volume of domestic treated wastewater from Aqaba WSP reached (3.2) MCM in 1999. About (1.5) MCM is used for irrigating palm trees and the rest is used for artificial recharge using infiltration basins. Ramtha, Ma’an, and Madaba WSP These three plants are served with three WSP producing about (3.5) MCM (1999) where it is used for irrigating fodder crops and trees around the WWTP. Salt, Tafielah, Karak, Irbid and Kufranja These plants are treated about (6) MCM. Where their effluents join the stream of wadis. This water is also used by downstream users for irrigation or collected in small dams, which are built on the wadis for later use in irrigation.
Table (4) shows direct reuse areas and crop patterns in Jordan.
There are about 6 small domestic treatment plants serving the residential areas of the employees of major industries (Cement, Phosphate, and Potash) providing about (1.5) MCM of water. Some of this water is used for on-site irrigation and the rest is reused in industries for cooling purposes. Industrial water from the two major industrial cities (Sahab and Al Hassan) is treated separately and is used for on-site irrigation. Scattered industries, whose influent could not join the domestic wastewater, are using their industrial effluent for on-site irrigation like the yeast and paper factories. The effluent of hazardous industries like paint, batteries, chemicals and pharmaceutical are disposed through evaporation or incineration. Phosphate mining and processing is considered one of the main industries in Jordan, which consumes about (20) MCM of water. Recently, the processed water has been recycled after settling and filtration. The effluent of the treatment plants of Amman Airport and Al-Hussein Medical City are used for irrigation of grasses, green areas and forest trees in the vicinity of the two sites.
Regulations and Legislations. Concerned agencies have issued regulations and standards that are used to implement their wastewater management policies. These regulation cover agencies in charge of, collection of sewage, treatment process and disposal and discharge. The discharge of industrial and commercial wastewater into the sewerage system is strictly prohibited unless such effluent comply with standards of domestic wastewater. If these regulation are violated, the concerned agencies have the full right to take immediate actions including imposing penalties. All house owners or leaseholders residing in an estate, which is served by a sewerage system network, are encouraged to connect. The discharge of surface runoff water or storm water into the sewerage system networks is strictly prohibited. Sometimes, tertiary treatment of wastewater including ozonation or chlorination is needed before the effluent is discharged.
Lately, regulations and guidelines to direct the reuse of reclaimed water have been given the necessary importance with regard to the associated health and environmental impact. In 1982 and after thirteen years of uncontrolled use, Jordan issued standards through a by-law, which allows irrigation by wastewater only for trees and fodder crops. Jordanian standards and regulations were updated in 1995 with the following general criteria: 1.The treated wastewater must meet the specified standards that vary according to the planned use. 2.When treated effluent is used for irrigation of fruit trees, cooked vegetables and fodder crops, irrigation must be ceased two weeks before collecting the products. Fallen fruit should be discarded. 3.The adverse effect of certain effluent quality parameters on the soil characteristics and on certain crops should be considered. 4.Use of sprinkler systems for irrigation is prohibited. 5.Use of treated effluent in the irrigation of crops that can be eaten raw such as tomatoes, cucumber, carrots, lettuce, radish, mint, or parsley is prohibited. 6.Closed conduits or lined channels must be used for transmission of treated effluent in areas where the permeability is high, which can affect underground and surface water that could be used for potable purposes. 7.Dilution of treated water effluent by mixing at the treatment site with clean water in order to achieve the requirements of this standard is prohibited. 8.Use of treated effluent to recharge an aquifer, which is used for potable water supply purposes, is prohibited.
Tables (5&6) presents the Jordanian standards for wastewater discharge and reuse (893/95). The major features of these tables are not to permit application of treated sewage water in irrigation of fresh vegetables. In addition, restriction on the utilization of treated wastewater increases with switching the destiny of grown plants from animal to human food.
CategoryReuse condition Exposed group Intestinal nematodes b (arithmetic mean no. of eggs per liter c ) Fecal coliform (geometric mean no. per 100 ml c ) Wastewater treatment expected to achieve the required microbiological quality AIrrigation of crops likely to be eaten uncooked, sports fields, public parks d Workers consumers public 11 1000 d A series of stabilization ponds designed to achieve the microbiological quality indicated, or equivalent treatment. BIrrigation of cereal crops, industrial, crops, fodder crops, pasture and trees e Workers 11 No standard recommended Retention in stabilization ponds for 8-10 days or equivalent helminthes and fecal coliform removal CLocalized irrigation of crops in category B if exposure of workers and the public does not occur NoneNot applicable Pretreatment as required by the irrigation technology, but not less than primary sedimentation Table 14: Recommended microbiological quality guidelines for wastewater use in agriculture a) In specific cases, local epidemiological, socio cultural and environmental factors should be taken into account, and the guidelines modified accordingly. b) Ascars and Trichuris species and hookworms. c) During the irrigation period. d) A more stringent guideline (<200 fecal coliform per 100 ml) is appropriate for public lawns, such as hotel lawns, with which the public may come into direct contact. e) In the case of fruit trees, irrigation should cease two weeks before fruit is picked, and no fruit should be picked of the ground. Sprinkler irrigation should not be used. Source: WHO, 1989.
Government Policy On June, 1998 the government established the latest policy for wastewater management and reuse, it’s main features on reuse of treated effluent is as follows: Treated wastewater effluent is considered a water resource and is added to the water stock for reuse. This warranted and deemed feasible in light of the semi arid climate, the modest per capita share of freshwater resources, the high demand for municipal water, the per capita share of the deficit in the trade of food commodities, and of the marginal cost of resource development. Priority shall be given to agricultural reuse of treated effluent for unresticted irrigation. Blending of treated wastewater with fresh water shall be made to improve quality where possible. Crops to be irrigated by the treated effluent of blend thereof with freshwater resources shall be selected to suit the irrigation water, soil type and chemisty, and the economics of the reuse operations. Crop nutrients requirement shall be determined taking into consideration the prevailing effluent quality. Overuse of nutrients shall be avoided.
Government Policy continued Accumulation of heavy metals and salinity shall be monitored, managed and mitigated. Farmers shall be encouraged to determine the rate of water application needed for different crops, taking into consideration the value of nutrients in the treated water and other parameters. Farmers shall be encouraged to use modern and efficient irrigation technologies. Protection of on farm workers and of crops against pollution with wastewater shall be ensured. Treated effluent quality should be monitored and users be alerted to any emergency causing deterioration of the quality so that they will not use such water unless corrective measures are taken. Studies should be conducted and projects designed and implemented to store the excess treated wastewater in surface reservoirs or in groundwater reservoirs through artificial recharge technique.