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Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley An atom loses an electron to another.

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Presentation on theme: "Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley An atom loses an electron to another."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley An atom loses an electron to another atom. Is this an example of a physical or a chemical change? A. Physical change involving the formation of negative ions. B. Chemical change involving the formation of negative ions. C. Physical change involving the formation of positive ions. D. Chemical change involving the formation of positive ions.

2 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley An atom loses an electron to another atom. Is this an example of a physical or a chemical change? A. Physical change involving the formation of negative ions. B. Chemical change involving the formation of negative ions. C. Physical change involving the formation of positive ions. D. Chemical change involving the formation of positive ions.

3 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The neon atom tends NOT to gain any additional electrons because A. its nuclear charge is not great enough. B. that would result in a positive ion. C. of the repulsions they would experience with electrons in the same shell. D.there is no more room available in its outermost occupied shell.

4 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The neon atom tends NOT to gain any additional electrons because A. its nuclear charge is not great enough. B. that would result in a positive ion. C. of the repulsions they would experience with electrons in the same shell. D.there is no more room available in its outermost occupied shell.

5 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Magnesium ions carry a 2+ charge, and chloride ions carry a 1– charge. What is the chemical formula for the ionic compound magnesium chloride? A. MgCl B. Mg 2 Cl C. MgCl 2 D. Mg 2 Cl 2

6 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Magnesium ions carry a 2+ charge, and chloride ions carry a 1– charge. What is the chemical formula for the ionic compound magnesium chloride? A. MgCl B. Mg 2 Cl C. MgCl 2 D. Mg 2 Cl 2

7 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A hydrogen atom does not form more than one covalent bond, because it A. has only one shell of electrons. B. has only one electron to share. C. loses its valence electron so readily. D. has such a strong electronegativity.

8 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A hydrogen atom does not form more than one covalent bond, because it A. has only one shell of electrons. B. has only one electron to share. C. loses its valence electron so readily. D. has such a strong electronegativity.

9 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Classify the following bond as ionic, covalent, or metallic (Na, atomic number 11; Cl, atomic number 17) Na with ClNa with NaCl with Cl A. metallic, covalent, covalent B. ionic, metallic, covalent C. ionic, ionic, covalent D. covalent, metallic, ionic

10 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Classify the following bond as ionic, covalent, or metallic (Na, atomic number 11; Cl, atomic number 17) Na with ClNa with NaCl with Cl A. metallic, covalent, covalent B. ionic, metallic, covalent C. ionic, ionic, covalent D. covalent, metallic, ionic

11 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley In terms of the periodic table, is there an abrupt or gradual change between ionic and covalent bonds? A.An abrupt change that occurs across the metalloids. B. Actually, any element of the periodic table can form a covalent bond. C. There is a gradual change: the farther apart, the more ionic. D. Whether an element forms one or the other depends on nuclear charge and not the relative positions in the periodic table.

12 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley In terms of the periodic table, is there an abrupt or gradual change between ionic and covalent bonds? A.An abrupt change that occurs across the metalloids. B. Actually, any element of the periodic table can form a covalent bond. C. There is a gradual change: the farther apart, the more ionic. D. Whether an element forms one or the other depends on nuclear charge and not the relative positions in the periodic table.

13 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Which bond is most polar? A. H-N B. N-C C. C-C D. O-H

14 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Which bond is most polar? A. H-N B. N-C C. C-C D. O-H

15 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Is the air in your house a homogeneous or a heterogeneous mixture? A.Homogeneous, because it is mixed very well. B.Heterogeneous, because of the dust particles it contains. C.Homogeneous, because it is all at the same temperature. D.Heterogeneous, because it consists of different types of molecules.

16 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Is the air in your house a homogeneous or a heterogeneous mixture? A.Homogeneous, because it is mixed very well. B.Heterogeneous, because of the dust particles it contains. C.Homogeneous, because it is all at the same temperature. D.Heterogeneous, because it consists of different types of molecules.

17 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Many dry cereals are fortified with iron, which is added in the form of small iron particles. How might these particles be separated from the cereal? A.Add water, and the iron particles will float to the top. B.Blend the cereal to a fine consistency and pass through a filter. C.Collect the iron filings with a magnet. D.Heat the cereal so that the iron particles melt and thereby coalesce.

18 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Many dry cereals are fortified with iron, which is added in the form of small iron particles. How might these particles be separated from the cereal? A.Add water, and the iron particles will float to the top. B.Blend the cereal to a fine consistency and pass through a filter. C.Collect the iron filings with a magnet. D.Heat the cereal so that the iron particles melt and thereby coalesce.

19 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Hydrogen chloride, HCl, is a gas at room temperature. Would you expect this material to be very soluble or not very soluble in water? A.HCl is very soluble in water by virtue of the dipole/dipole attractions occurring between the HCl and H 2 O molecules. B.It is not very soluble because it is a gas, and all gases have very low solubility in water at room temperature. C.HCl is very soluble in water, because it is such a small molecule, there is little electrical attraction to other HCl molecules. D.It is not very soluble, because as a gas with low density, it floats to the surface of the water and then into the surrounding atmosphere.

20 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Hydrogen chloride, HCl, is a gas at room temperature. Would you expect this material to be very soluble or not very soluble in water? A.HCl is very soluble in water by virtue of the dipole/dipole attractions occurring between the HCl and H 2 O molecules. B.It is not very soluble because it is a gas, and all gases have very low solubility in water at room temperature. C.HCl is very soluble in water, because it is such a small molecule, there is little electrical attraction to other HCl molecules. D.It is not very soluble, because as a gas with low density, it floats to the surface of the water and then into the surrounding atmosphere.

21 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Would you expect to find more dissolved oxygen in cold polar or warm tropical ocean waters? Why? A.There would be more dissolved oxygen in the tropical oceans, because intense tropical storms mix up the atmospheric oxygen into the ocean water. B.There would be more dissolved oxygen in the polar oceans, because the colder oxygen would “sink” and dissolve into the water. C.There would be more dissolved oxygen in the tropical oceans, because the heated oxygen molecules in the air would collide with and mix into the water. D.There would be more dissolved oxygen in the polar oceans, because the solubility of oxygen in water decreases with increasing temperature.

22 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Would you expect to find more dissolved oxygen in cold polar or warm tropical ocean waters? Why? A.There would be more dissolved oxygen in the tropical oceans, because intense tropical storms mix up the atmospheric oxygen into the ocean water. B.There would be more dissolved oxygen in the polar oceans, because the colder oxygen would “sink” and dissolve into the water. C.There would be more dissolved oxygen in the tropical oceans, because the heated oxygen molecules in the air would collide with and mix into the water. D.There would be more dissolved oxygen in the polar oceans, because the solubility of oxygen in water decreases with increasing temperature.

23 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Fish don’t live very long in water that has just been boiled and brought back to room temperature. Suggest why. A.There is now a higher concentration of dissolved CO 2 in the water. B.The nutrients in the water have been destroyed. C.Because some of the water was evaporated while boiling, the salts in the water are now more concentrated. This has a negative effect on the fish. D.The boiling process removes the air that was dissolved in the water. Upon cooling, the water is void of its usual air content; hence, the fish drown.

24 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Fish don’t live very long in water that has just been boiled and brought back to room temperature. Suggest why. A.There is now a higher concentration of dissolved CO 2 in the water. B.The nutrients in the water have been destroyed. C.Because some of the water was evaporated while boiling, the salts in the water are now more concentrated. This has a negative effect on the fish. D.The boiling process removes the air that was dissolved in the water. Upon cooling, the water is void of its usual air content; hence, the fish drown.

25 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Which of the following intermolecular forces best describes why nonpolar molecules like gasoline (C 8 H 18 ) have only limited solubility in water? A. Dipole–dipole. B. Induced dipole–induced dipole. C. Hydrogen bonding. D. Dipole–induced dipole. E. Ion–dipole.

26 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Which of the following intermolecular forces best describes why nonpolar molecules like gasoline (C 8 H 18 ) have only limited solubility in water? A. Dipole–dipole. B. Induced dipole–induced dipole. C. Hydrogen bonding. D. Dipole–induced dipole. E. Ion–dipole.

27 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A glass of water contains on the order of a trillion trillion (1  ) molecules. If % of these molecules were some impurity, about how many molecules would this be? A.1000 (one thousand: 1  10 3 ) B.1,000,000 (one million: 1  10 6 ) C.1,000,000,000 (one billion: 1  10 9 ) D.1,000,000,000,000,000,000 (one million trillion: 1  )

28 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A glass of water contains on the order of a trillion trillion (1  ) molecules. If % of these molecules were some impurity, about how many molecules would this be? A.1000 (one thousand: 1  10 3 ) B.1,000,000 (one million: 1  10 6 ) C.1,000,000,000 (one billion: 1  10 9 ) D.1,000,000,000,000,000,000 (one million trillion: 1  )

29 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley How would you respond in defense of water’s purity if it contained thousands of molecules of some impurity per glass? A.Impurities aren’t necessarily bad; in fact, they may be good for you. B.The water contains water molecules, and each water molecule is pure. C.There’s no defense. If the water contains impurities, it should not be drunk. D.Compared to the billions and billions of water molecules, a thousand molecules of something else is practically nothing.

30 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley How would you respond in defense of water’s purity if it contained thousands of molecules of some impurity per glass? A.Impurities aren’t necessarily bad; in fact, they may be good for you. B.The water contains water molecules, and each water molecule is pure. C.There’s no defense. If the water contains impurities, it should not be drunk. D.Compared to the billions and billions of water molecules, a thousand molecules of something else is practically nothing.

31 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The valence electron of a sodium atom does not sense the full +11 of the sodium nucleus. Why not? A.There are two inner shells of electrons containing ten electrons shielding the sodium nucleus from sensing it. B.The distance from the nucleus to the loosely held lone valence electron varies greatly over time. So, the average sense of charge from the nucleus is considerably less than +11. C.Because the +11 charge is spread evenly around the entire spherical surface of the nucleus, the actual force of the charge in any given direction is greatly diminished. D.There are two “non-valence shell” electrons shielding the sodium nucleus from sensing it.

32 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The valence electron of a sodium atom does not sense the full +11 of the sodium nucleus. Why not? A.There are two inner shells of electrons containing ten electrons shielding the sodium nucleus from sensing it. B.The distance from the nucleus to the loosely held lone valence electron varies greatly over time. So, the average sense of charge from the nucleus is considerably less than +11. C.Because the +11 charge is spread evenly around the entire spherical surface of the nucleus, the actual force of the charge in any given direction is greatly diminished. D.There are two “non-valence shell” electrons shielding the sodium nucleus from sensing it.

33 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The neon atom tends NOT to lose any electrons, because A. the ionization energy is so high. B.that would result in a negative ion. C.it has a relatively strong effective nuclear charge. D.its electrons are paired together within the same orbitals.

34 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The neon atom tends NOT to lose any electrons, because A. the ionization energy is so high. B.that would result in a negative ion. C.it has a relatively strong effective nuclear charge. D.its electrons are paired together within the same orbitals.

35 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Atoms of metallic elements can form ionic bonds, but they are not very good at forming covalent bonds. Why? A. These atoms are too large to be able to come in close contact with other atoms. B. They have a great tendency to lose electrons. C. They are on the wrong side of the periodic table. D. Their valence shells are already filled with electrons.

36 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Atoms of metallic elements can form ionic bonds, but they are not very good at forming covalent bonds. Why? A. These atoms are too large to be able to come in close contact with other atoms. B. They have a great tendency to lose electrons. C. They are on the wrong side of the periodic table. D. Their valence shells are already filled with electrons.

37 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley How many electrons are used to draw the electron-dot structure for hydrogen peroxide, a covalent compound with the formula H 2 O 2 ? A.14 B. 8 C. 7 D. 4

38 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley How many electrons are used to draw the electron-dot structure for hydrogen peroxide, a covalent compound with the formula H 2 O 2 ? A.14 B. 8 C. 7 D. 4

39 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The source of an atom’s electronegativity is the A. kinetic energy which electrons orbiting the nucleus have. B. repulsive force occurring among electrons within the same shell. C. repulsive force occurring between electrons within neighboring shells. D. effective nuclear charge.

40 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The source of an atom’s electronegativity is the A. kinetic energy which electrons orbiting the nucleus have. B. repulsive force occurring among electrons within the same shell. C. repulsive force occurring between electrons within neighboring shells. D. effective nuclear charge.

41 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Two molecules, A and B, have very different physical properties. A and B do not mix. Molecule A boils at 80°C and freezes at –30°C. Molecule B boils at 35°C and freezes at – 100°C. Which molecule is likely to have the largest dipole? A. Molecule A B. Molecule B C.Not enough information was given. D.Both have similar dipoles. E. Molecule A and molecule B are the same, but each has different properties.

42 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Two molecules, A and B, have very different physical properties. A and B do not mix. Molecule A boils at 80°C and freezes at –30°C. Molecule B boils at 35°C and freezes at – 100°C. Which molecule is likely to have the largest dipole? A. Molecule A B. Molecule B C.Not enough information was given. D.Both have similar dipoles. E. Molecule A and molecule B are the same, but each has different properties.

43 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Magnesium chloride, MgCl 2, crystals are composed of A. a two-dimensional array of [-Mg-Cl-Cl-] units. B. a multitude of Mg 2+ ions and Cl – ions grouped together in a three-dimensional array with a 1:2 ratio of Mg 2+ to Cl –. C. units of MgCl 2 molecules held together by dipole interactions. D. groups of Mg 2+ ions and Cl 2 molecules.

44 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Magnesium chloride, MgCl 2, crystals are composed of A. a two-dimensional array of [-Mg-Cl-Cl-] units. B. a multitude of Mg 2+ ions and Cl - ions grouped together in a three-dimensional array with a 1:2 ratio of Mg 2+ to Cl -. C. units of MgCl 2 molecules held together by dipole interactions. D. groups of Mg 2+ ions and Cl 2 molecules.

45 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley When nitrogen and fluorine combine to form a molecule, the most likely chemical formula is A. N 3 F B. N 2 F C. NF 4 D. NF E. NF

46 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley When nitrogen and fluorine combine to form a molecule, the most likely chemical formula is A. N 3 F B. N 2 F C. NF 4 D. NF E. NF

47 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The charges with sodium chloride are all balanced—for every positive sodium ion, there is a corresponding negative chloride ion. Because its charges are balanced, how can sodium chloride be attracted to water, and vice versa? A. This is not a matter of attraction. Sodium chloride dissolves in water, because water provides a medium in which the individual sodium and chloride ions can disperse. B. Dispersion forces come into play as the sodium chloride and water come into close proximity. C. Hydrogen bonding in water allows the sodium chloride molecule to be attracted to the water molecule. D. As a water molecule gets close to the sodium chloride, it can distinguish the various ions. It is thus attracted to an individual ion by ion–dipole forces.

48 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The charges with sodium chloride are all balanced—for every positive sodium ion, there is a corresponding negative chloride ion. Because its charges are balanced, how can sodium chloride be attracted to water, and vice versa? A. This is not a matter of attraction. Sodium chloride dissolves in water, because water provides a medium in which the individual sodium and chloride ions can disperse. B. Dispersion forces come into play as the sodium chloride and water come into close proximity. C. Hydrogen bonding in water allows the sodium chloride molecule to be attracted to the water molecule. D. As a water molecule gets close to the sodium chloride, it can distinguish the various ions. It is thus attracted to an individual ion by ion–dipole forces.

49 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Why are ion–dipole attractions stronger than dipole–dipole attractions? A. The chemical bond in an ion–dipole molecule is similar to a covalent bond. B. Like charge (dipole) does not attract like charge (another dipole). C. Dipole areas are subject to changing from positive to negative regions on the molecule. D. The magnitude of the electric charge associated with an ion is much greater.

50 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Why are ion–dipole attractions stronger than dipole–dipole attractions? A. The chemical bond in an ion–dipole molecule is similar to a covalent bond. B. Like charge (dipole) does not attract like charge (another dipole). C. Dipole areas are subject to changing from positive to negative regions on the molecule. D. The magnitude of the electric charge associated with an ion is much greater.

51 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Which of the following intermolecular forces best describes why nonpolar molecules like gasoline (C 8 H 18 ) have only limited solubility in water? A. Dipole–dipole. B. Induced dipole–induced dipole. C. Hydrogen bonding. D. Dipole–induced dipole. E. Ion–dipole.

52 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Which of the following intermolecular forces best describes why nonpolar molecules like gasoline (C 8 H 18 ) have only limited solubility in water? A. Dipole–dipole. B. Induced dipole–induced dipole. C. Hydrogen bonding. D. Dipole–induced dipole. E. Ion–dipole.

53 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Dipole–induced dipole forces of attraction exist between water and gasoline, and yet these two substances do not mix, because water has such a strong attraction for itself.

54 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Which of the following compounds might best help to make water and gasoline mix into a single liquid phase? A. The molecule in the middle—because when the salts mix into the water, it will help separate the water and decrease the attraction for itself. B. The molecule on the far left—because the O-H bond is polar, and the carbon and hydrogen bonds are nonpolar. C. The molecule on the right will form attractions with the polar ends of the water, allowing the gasoline a chance to mix with the water. D. All of these molecules would be equally effective at increasing the mixing of gasoline and water.

55 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Which of the following compounds might best help to make water and gasoline mix into a single liquid phase? A. The molecule in the middle—because when the salts mix into the water, it will help separate the water and decrease the attraction for itself. B. The molecule on the far left—because the O-H bond is polar, and the carbon and hydrogen bonds are nonpolar. C. The molecule on the right will form attractions with the polar ends of the water, allowing the gasoline a chance to mix with the water. D. All of these molecules would be equally effective at increasing the mixing of gasoline and water.

56 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The boiling point of 1,4-butanediol is 230°C. Would you expect this compound to be soluble or insoluble in room- temperature water? A. Because there are no polar areas on this molecule, it is insoluble in water at room temperature. B. A high boiling point means that the substance interacts with itself quite strongly. Therefore, this molecule is not soluble in water. C. Because there are polar areas on this molecule, it is insoluble in water at room temperature. D. Water would be attracted to both ends of 1,4-butanediol, and it is infinitely soluble in water.

57 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The boiling point of 1,4-butanediol is 230°C. Would you expect this compound to be soluble or insoluble in room- temperature water? A. Because there are no polar areas on this molecule, it is insoluble in water at room temperature. B. A high boiling point means that the substance interacts with itself quite strongly. Therefore, this molecule is not soluble in water. C. Because there are polar areas on this molecule, it is insoluble in water at room temperature. D. Water would be attracted to both ends of 1,4-butanediol, and it is infinitely soluble in water.

58 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley What is the molarity of 0.5 liters of a solution with five moles of sucrose in it? B. 2.5 molar C. 10 molar D. 1 molar E. 5 molar A. 0.5 molar

59 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley What is the molarity of 0.5 liters of a solution with five moles of sucrose in it? B. 2.5 molar C. 10 molar D. 1 molar E. 5 molar A. 0.5 molar

60 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Which of the following substances should be most soluble in hexane, CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 ? A. I 2 B. CH 3 CH 2 OH C. H 2 O D. HF E. NaCl

61 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Which of the following substances should be most soluble in hexane, CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 ? A. I 2 B. CH 3 CH 2 OH C. H 2 O D. HF E. NaCl


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