Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Hydrogen Economy Jorge Plaza Scott Owens ChE 384 November 21, 2006 Infrastructure Creation and End Use Application.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Hydrogen Economy Jorge Plaza Scott Owens ChE 384 November 21, 2006 Infrastructure Creation and End Use Application."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Hydrogen Economy Jorge Plaza Scott Owens ChE 384 November 21, 2006 Infrastructure Creation and End Use Application

2 The Hydrogen Economy: It’s going to be a blast!!!!

3

4 Why H 2 ICE? ICE is a mature technology ICE is a mature technology Near zero emissions Near zero emissions High thermal efficiency High thermal efficiency LHV: H 2 =120 MJ/Kg; Gasoline=43 MJ/Kg LHV: H 2 =120 MJ/Kg; Gasoline=43 MJ/Kg H 2 DI ICE is capable of 115% of the power of gas ICE H 2 DI ICE is capable of 115% of the power of gas ICE Very tunable combustion Very tunable combustion LEL/UEL(Vol%): H 2 =4/75; Gasoline =1/7.6 LEL/UEL(Vol%): H 2 =4/75; Gasoline =1/7.6 Highly integrated designs possible Highly integrated designs possible Safe Safe

5 Variable Compression Ratios

6 Safety

7 Why NOT H 2 ICE? One word - STORAGE: One word - STORAGE: Mass H 2 Temp (K) Press (MPa) Vol (Gal [L]) EE Gas 1 Kg Atmos25 16 [60] 1 gal 3.3 Kg [60] 3.3 gal* *lasts for 3 wks in tank.

8 Why NOT H 2 ICE? Storage Alternatives: Storage Alternatives: Alloy Hydrides Alloy Hydrides Sodium Borohydride Sodium Borohydride Liquid (infrastructure) Liquid (infrastructure) High purity H 2 High purity H 2 Non-Flammable Non-Flammable Cost ($80/kg) Cost ($80/kg) Weight (7wt% loading) Weight (7wt% loading) Recycle Recycle Material H-Atoms per cm 3 (x ) wt% hydroge n H 2 gas, 200 bar (2850 psi) H 2 liquid, 20 K (-253 C) H2H2H2H MgH Mg 2 NiH FeTiH LaNi 5 H

9 The Future Scenario

10 Production Production Similar timelines for Europe and US. Similar timelines for Europe and US. Faster track for Europe. Faster track for Europe. DOE expects feasibility determinations by 2015 DOE expects feasibility determinations by 2015 Transition period where fossil fuels play major role. Transition period where fossil fuels play major role Europe – “de-carbonized” economy 2050 Europe – “de-carbonized” economy 2050 Centralized Production 2050 Centralized Production

11 The Future Scenario Storage Storage Solid Storage for small devices. Solid Storage for small devices. Underground gaseous storage Underground gaseous storage 2050: Carbon structures for storage. 2050: Carbon structures for storage.

12 The Future Scenario Transportation Transportation Partial use of the natural gas grid reduces costs by 2010 Partial use of the natural gas grid reduces costs by 2010 Better liquefaction technology allows for trucks and ships Better liquefaction technology allows for trucks and ships Interconnected local grids by 2030 Interconnected local grids by 2030

13 Current Status Production Production 40 million tons/ year 40 million tons/ year Mainly natural gas reforming, coal gasification, water electrolysis. Mainly natural gas reforming, coal gasification, water electrolysis. 95% SMR in the US 95% SMR in the US Steam Methane Reforming Steam Methane Reforming Water + Methane feedstock Water + Methane feedstock Readily available Readily available Transition process Transition process

14 Current Status Steam Methane Reforming Steam Methane Reforming Dependent on natural gas prices Dependent on natural gas prices Connected to CO 2 Sequestration Connected to CO 2 Sequestration Optimization: Optimization: Carbon/steam ratio Carbon/steam ratio Higher steam outlet temperature Higher steam outlet temperature Catalysts Catalysts Process configurations Process configurations

15 Current Status Partial Oxidation Partial Oxidation Uses oxygen to convert into CO and H 2 Uses oxygen to convert into CO and H 2 Expensive due to oxygen costs Expensive due to oxygen costs High operating temperatures High operating temperatures Improvements in gas separation membranes may lower costs Improvements in gas separation membranes may lower costs

16 Current Status AutoThermal Reforming AutoThermal Reforming Blend of Partial Oxidation and SMR Blend of Partial Oxidation and SMR Very efficient process (93.9% theory) Very efficient process (93.9% theory) Smaller plants, faster start time Smaller plants, faster start time Less mature technology Less mature technology Improvement in reactor design Improvement in reactor design More resistant catalysts More resistant catalysts

17 Current Status Coal Gasification Coal Gasification Endothermic gasification Endothermic gasification No NO x concerns – low oxygen environment No NO x concerns – low oxygen environment Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Electricity and Hydrogen Electricity and Hydrogen Efficiencies around 42% with hopes to 60% Efficiencies around 42% with hopes to 60% US Energy independence US Energy independence FutureGen Project FutureGen Project Site selection by 2007 Site selection by 2007 Online by 2012 Online by 2012

18 Current Status Coal Gasification Coal Gasification Challenges Challenges CO 2 sequestration CO 2 sequestration Price dynamics Price dynamics Supply structure Supply structure Alkaline Electrolysis Alkaline Electrolysis Alkaline solution as electrolyte Alkaline solution as electrolyte

19 Current Status Alkaline Electrolysis Alkaline Electrolysis Efficiencies, lifetime and costs. Efficiencies, lifetime and costs. High Temperature and pressure electrolyzers High Temperature and pressure electrolyzers Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Recent technology Recent technology Polymer membrane as electrolyte Polymer membrane as electrolyte Operation at high pressures Operation at high pressures High cost of membranes and electrodes High cost of membranes and electrodes

20 Current Status Biomass Production Biomass Production

21 Current Status Solar and Nuclear Solar and Nuclear Low peak generation Low peak generation Sulfur – Iodine Process Sulfur – Iodine Process High temperature water splitting. High temperature water splitting. Depend on development of Generation IV Nuclear reactors Depend on development of Generation IV Nuclear reactors New materials for high temperature and corrosion resistance. New materials for high temperature and corrosion resistance. Solar heat source Solar heat source Costs are not permissive Costs are not permissive Expected to be viable towards 2030 Expected to be viable towards 2030

22 Current Status MethodDescriptionChallenges Liquid hydrogenAvailable technology Use compressors and Heat exchangers High compression costs Prevention of boil-off Compressed Gas Available Technology Use of caverns for large scale long timeframe Compression costs for vessel storage Inefficient unloading Metal HydrideChemically bonded hydrogen High pressure release Infant technology Hydride storage capacity Hydride stability Storage Storage

23 Current Status MethodDescriptionChallenges Liquid hydrogenDouble wall insulated tanks Trucks and barges or ships Cost Boil-off rates Compressed Gas Mainly pipelines May use part of the natural gas infrastructure Operational and capital costs Hydrogen embrittlement Metal HydrideContainers with the hydride are switched or unloaded at site. Cost of the containers for hydride transportation Transportation Transportation

24 Conclusions Strong need for a clear public policy Strong need for a clear public policy Further optimization of available technologies is required Further optimization of available technologies is required Work is needed in the whole hydrogen supply infrastructure Work is needed in the whole hydrogen supply infrastructure “No silver bullet”. Hydrogen is an option “No silver bullet”. Hydrogen is an option First sight around First sight around 2020.

25 References Amendola, S.C., Sharp-Goldman, S.L., Janjua, M.S., et al. “A safe, portable, hydrogen gas generator using aqueous borohydride solution and Ru catalyst.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 25. Elsevier Science Ltd, Amendola, S.C., Sharp-Goldman, S.L., Janjua, M.S., et al. “A safe, portable, hydrogen gas generator using aqueous borohydride solution and Ru catalyst.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 25. Elsevier Science Ltd, Amos W. “Cost of Storing and Transporting Hydrogen”. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP November Amos W. “Cost of Storing and Transporting Hydrogen”. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP November Becker, Laura. “Hydrogen Storage.” CSA, Materials Information: Metals, Engineered Materials, Aluminum Industry and Corrosion Abstracts Becker, Laura. “Hydrogen Storage.” CSA, Materials Information: Metals, Engineered Materials, Aluminum Industry and Corrosion Abstracts Brusstar, M., Stuhldreher, M., Swain, D. “High Efficiency and Low Emissions from a Port Injected Engine with Neat Alcohol Fuels.” United States EPA and Society of Automotive Engineers Brusstar, M., Stuhldreher, M., Swain, D. “High Efficiency and Low Emissions from a Port Injected Engine with Neat Alcohol Fuels.” United States EPA and Society of Automotive Engineers Chen T. “Investigation of Catalytic Autothermal Reforming Process for Hydrogen Production”. Proceedings of the Taiwan Tech Trek 2005 Academic Conference. Taipei, Taiwan. Chen T. “Investigation of Catalytic Autothermal Reforming Process for Hydrogen Production”. Proceedings of the Taiwan Tech Trek 2005 Academic Conference. Taipei, Taiwan. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); United States Department of Energy. A. “Fact #415: March 13, Changes in Vehicles per Capita around the World.” B. “hydrogen Infrastructure and Technologies Program” Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); United States Department of Energy. A. “Fact #415: March 13, Changes in Vehicles per Capita around the World.” B. “hydrogen Infrastructure and Technologies Program” Foster Wheeler. “Hydrogen Plants for the New Millennium”. Presented at the Middle East PETROTECH Bahrain, October Foster Wheeler. “Hydrogen Plants for the New Millennium”. Presented at the Middle East PETROTECH Bahrain, October Green Car Congress. “The Arguments for hydrogen Combustion Engines.” Green Car Congress. “The Arguments for hydrogen Combustion Engines.” International Energy Agency – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development “Prospects for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells” International Energy Agency – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development “Prospects for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells” Mawdsley J., Ferrandon M. Rossignol C., Ralph J., Miller L., Kopasz J., Krause T. “Catalyst for Autothermal Reforming” FY 2003 Progress Report. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies. Argonne National Laboratory. Mawdsley J., Ferrandon M. Rossignol C., Ralph J., Miller L., Kopasz J., Krause T. “Catalyst for Autothermal Reforming” FY 2003 Progress Report. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies. Argonne National Laboratory.

26 References Cont’d Powers, Laurie. “Flexibly Fueled Storage Tank Brings hydrogen Powered Cars Closer to Reality.” Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL), Department of Energy Powers, Laurie. “Flexibly Fueled Storage Tank Brings hydrogen Powered Cars Closer to Reality.” Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL), Department of Energy Roberts, Paul. The End of Oil. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston, MA Roberts, Paul. The End of Oil. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston, MA Rochelle, G.T., “Presentation Made to Prospective Grad Students, 2005.” Rochelle, G.T., “Presentation Made to Prospective Grad Students, 2005.” Schatz Energy Research Center, Humboldt State University. “Development of a PEM Electrolyzer: Enabling Seasonal Storage of Renewable Energy –Feasibility and Final Energy Innovations Small Grant Report” Prepared for the California Energy Commission. May 2005 Schatz Energy Research Center, Humboldt State University. “Development of a PEM Electrolyzer: Enabling Seasonal Storage of Renewable Energy –Feasibility and Final Energy Innovations Small Grant Report” Prepared for the California Energy Commission. May 2005 Sandia National Lab, United States Department of Energy. A. hydrogen Research Program B. Combustion Research Facility Sandia National Lab, United States Department of Energy. A. hydrogen Research Program B. Combustion Research Facility Swain, M.R. “Fuel Leak Simulation.” University of Miami. Presented at:Proceedings of the 2001 DOE hydrogen Program Review, Swain, M.R. “Fuel Leak Simulation.” University of Miami. Presented at:Proceedings of the 2001 DOE hydrogen Program Review, Turner J. “Sustainable Hydrogen Production” Science 13 August 2004: Vol no. 5686, pp. 972 – 974. Turner J. “Sustainable Hydrogen Production” Science 13 August 2004: Vol no. 5686, pp. 972 – 974. U.S Department of Energy “A National Vision of America’s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy – To 2030 and Beyond”. Based on the results of the National Hydrogen Vision Meeting. U.S Department of Energy “A National Vision of America’s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy – To 2030 and Beyond”. Based on the results of the National Hydrogen Vision Meeting. US Department of Energy “Project Update: November FutureGen – A Sequestration and Hydrogen Research Initiative” found at US Department of Energy “Project Update: November FutureGen – A Sequestration and Hydrogen Research Initiative” found at

27 References Cont’d gas.com/International/Web/LG/COM/likelgcom30.nsf/DocByAlias/ind_pox gas.com/International/Web/LG/COM/likelgcom30.nsf/DocByAlias/ind_pox gas.com/International/Web/LG/COM/likelgcom30.nsf/DocByAlias/ind_pox gas.com/International/Web/LG/COM/likelgcom30.nsf/DocByAlias/ind_pox tionCoal.pdf tionCoal.pdf tionCoal.pdf tionCoal.pdf eamMethaneReforming.pdf eamMethaneReforming.pdf eamMethaneReforming.pdf eamMethaneReforming.pdf tionOverview.pdf tionOverview.pdf tionOverview.pdf tionOverview.pdf tionNuclear.pdf tionNuclear.pdf tionNuclear.pdf tionNuclear.pdf ficationworks.html ficationworks.html ficationworks.html ficationworks.html


Download ppt "The Hydrogen Economy Jorge Plaza Scott Owens ChE 384 November 21, 2006 Infrastructure Creation and End Use Application."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google