Presentation on theme: "Better Air Quality 2004 EMISSION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND PARTICULATE MATTER FROM DOMESTIC COOKING USING COAL Nghiem Trung Dung Institute."— Presentation transcript:
1 Better Air Quality EMISSION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND PARTICULATE MATTER FROM DOMESTIC COOKING USING COALNghiem Trung DungInstitute for Environmental Science and TechnologyHanoi University of Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet road, Hanoi, VietnamHoang Xuan Co, Pham Ngoc Ho and Do Quang HuyFaculty of Environmental Sciences, Hanoi University of Sciences Vietnam National University, 334 Nguyen Trai road, Hanoi, VietnamAgra, India, 6-8 December 2004
2 INTRODUCTIONPAHs: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, or Polynuclear Aromatics (PNA), organic compounds composed of fused benzene ringsSources:Natural: Forest fires, volcanoesAnthropogenic: Incomplete combustion of organic materials, industriesA major group of carcinogens and mutagens in the environment.Human exposure: via food, water, air or direct contact with materials containing PAHs.PAHs in the air: Distributed between particulate and vapor phasesPAHs on particulate: Exchangeable fraction and non - exchangeable fractionDistribution of PAHs between vapor phase and exchangeable fraction of particulate phase depends on:Vapor pressure of PAHsAmbient temperatureParticulate concentration,Particulate size, surface area and the nature of particulate
4 PAHs distribution between particulate and vapor phases as a function of temperature Source: Yasuda (1995)
5 SOURCE SAMPLINGMethod followed: U.S. EPA Modified Method 5 (U.S.EPA,1986)- Gas-phase PAHs were collected on XAD-2 resin- Particulate-phase PAHs were collected on glass fiber filterParticulate matter were iso-kinetically sampledSampling train:
6 Source sampling train for PAHs Flue gas inHeated Filter BoxProbe LineStackCondenserXAD-2 (30 g)1. Condensate knockoutml of distilled water3. Emptyg of silica gel4 Impingers in Ice BathDry Gas MeterFlue gas out
8 Analytical procedure, US. EPA Method TO-13 Particulate matter or XAD-2Soxhlet extraction with DCMCentrifugation (if needed)Dewater by sodium sulphateRotary evaporation to nearly drynessSolvent exchange to cyclohexane (1ml)Clean-up with silica gel1) 25 ml, n-pentane2) 25 ml, n-pentane-DCM, (6:4, V:V)AliphaticfractionPAHs FractionEvaporation to dryness by N2 gasAdd 1 ml of cyclohexaneAnalysis by GC/MS
11 Comparison of PAHs emission factors among different fuels Source: Coal briquettes, wood, charcoal (Kim Oanh, 1999)Kerosene (Kim Oanh, 2002)Sawdust (Dung, 2004)
12 Comparison of PAHs emission rates among different fuels Source: Coal briquettes, wood, charcoal (Kim Oanh, 1999)Kerosene (Kim Oanh, 2002)Sawdust (Dung, 2004)
13 CONCLUSIONEmission of individual PAHs from domestic cooking using coal was monitored.Emission factor, emission rate as well as concentration of the total PAHs were determined to be 62.0 mg kg-1, 25.1mg h-1 and 4.0 g Nm-3 respectively.All detected PAHs, except for benzo(b)fluoranthene, were found to be present in both gas and PM phases of smoke.Gas phase contributed 70% of the total PAHs in terms of emission factor.Very high percentage of BaP in smoke emitted from domestic cooking using coal was observed.
14 ReferencesDung, N.T., Co, H.X., Ho, P.N. and Huy, D.Q., Emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter from Domestic Cooking Using Sawdust. Science and Technology (in press)Kim Oanh, N.T., Nghiem, L.H., Phyu, Y.L., Emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Toxicity and Mutagenicity from Domestic Cooking Using Sawdust Briquettes, Wood, and Kerosene. Environmental Science and Technology 36,Kim Oanh, N.T., Reutergårdh L.B., Dung, N.T., Emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter from Domestic Combustion of Selected Fuels. Environmental Science and Technology 33,U.S. EPA, Modified Method 5 (Method 0010) Sampling Train, Revision 0, September U.S. EPA, Washington, DC.U.S. EPA, Compendium of Methods for Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air, Revision 1.0, June U.S. EPA/600/4-89/017, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC.Yasuda, K., Stack Sampling Technique for PAHs. Materials of the Third ASEAN Workshop on Air Pollution Monitoring and Analysis with Emphasis on PAHs, ERTC, Bangkok, Thailand.