Life Cycle Flowchart Adapted from Industrial Designers Society of America - Okala
Premanufacture Raw Material Extraction Material Processing
Premanufacture: Raw Material Extraction All consumer products depend on the natural environment for raw materials Some form of energy is required Typically produces large quantities of outputs (wastes and emissions)
Premanufacture: Material Processing Often material-intensive
Premanufacture: Material Processing Often material-intensive Energy is required MaterialEnergy Cost (MJ/kg) Extracted from Titanium900 - 940Ore concentrate Aluminum227-342Bauxite Polystyrene87 - 115Crude oil Polyvinylchloride (PVC)85 - 107Crude oil Paper25-50Standing timber Glass18-35Sand, etc. Wood3 – 7Standing timber
Premanufacture: Material Processing Often material-intensive Energy is required Processing often produces wastes and other outputs –Example: Aluminum refining waste products Red mud Greenhouse gases SPL – spent potlining
Use Products remain at this stage as long as they are usable or repairable Powered consumer products have a large environmental impact
End of Life/Disposal Land Fill Incineration Material Recycling Component Reuse Product Reuse
Why We Throw Things Away Do consumers throw something away because it has stopped working or because they want something different? Industrial Designers Society of America - Okala
Reduce Reuse Recycle Disposal End of Life most favorable least favorable
Recycling Downcycling –Converting waste materials into new materials of lesser quality and reduced functionality Reduces consumption of raw materials Reduces energy usage Reduces the volume of waste material Reduces air and water pollution –Examples: Office paper to toilet paper Plastic recycling Aluminum recycling
Recycling Upcycling –Converting waste materials into new products of better quality or higher environmental value without degrading the material Reduces consumption of raw materials Reduces energy usage Reduces the volume of waste material Reduces air and water pollution –Examples: Tires to steps Drink pouches into backpacks Skateboards into bookcases Fire hoses into belts, bags, and cufflinks Old clothes into quilts and blankets Toothbrushes into a welcome mat
Environmental Concerns Global climate change Human organism damage Water availability and quality Depletion of fossil fuels Loss of biodiversity Stratospheric ozone depletion Land use patterns Depletion of non-fossil fuel resources Acid disposition
Ecological Design A method of design that is environmentally benign and economically viable. Economically Viable ECOLOGICAL DESIGN Environmentally Benign Economically Viable: Design is competitive in the marketplace. Environmentally Benign: Design demonstrates obvious or measurable environmental benefits. Industrial Designers Society of America - Okala
Sustainable Design Design that is environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially equitable. Economically Viable SUSTAINABLE DESIGN Environmentally Benign Socially Equitable Socially Equitable: Design considers all people participating in production, use, disposal, or reuse. Industrial Designers Society of America - Okala
Design for Sustainability Economically Viable SUSTAINABLE DESIGN Environmentally Benign Social Equity Sustainable product design involves... –Minimizing the consumption of materials, energy, and water –Avoiding toxic or hazardous materials and processes –Recycling or reusing materials
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) INPUTS OUTPUTS Natural Environment Identifies and quantifies the environmental impacts of a product, process, or service
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Economically Viable SUSTAINABLE DESIGN Environmentally Benign A technique used to assess the environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product, process, or service throughout the life of a product LCA includes: –Goal definition and scoping –Inventory analysis of inputs and outputs –Environmental impacts assessment –Interpretation
Chemicals Solvents Biological Agents Electricity Water Fossil Fuels Raw Material Parts Components Finished Components Finished Parts Non-hazardous Outputs Hazardous Material Outputs Liquid Gaseous Solid PROCESS Product Life Cycle Flow Diagram
Life Cycle StageMaterialsEnergySolidLiquidGaseousTotal Premanufacture Manufacture Product Delivery Use End of Life/ Disposal Total Inventory Analysis Score: 0 - 4 0: Poor environmental practices. Serious environmental concerns. 4: Excellent environmental practices. No serious environmental concerns.
Life Cycle StageMaterialsEnergySolidLiquidGaseousTotal Premanufacture 011215 Manufacture 111115 Product Delivery 3224213 Use 2133110 End of Life/ Disposal 111328 Total 76813751 Inventory Analysis – Desktop Computer and CRT Score: 0 - 4 0: Poor environmental practices. Serious environmental concerns. 4: Excellent environmental practices. No serious environmental concerns. 0 4 2 1
Image Resources Industrial Designers Society of America. (2009). Okala: Learning ecological design. Phoenix, AZ Microsoft, Inc. (n.d.). Clip art. Retrieved from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/clipart/default.aspx
Resources Gutowski, T. G. Design and manufacturing for the environment. (2004). Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/ebm/www/Publications/Gutowski%20Mech%20En g%20Handbook%20Ch%20Dec%206%2020041.pdfttp://web.mit.edu/ebm/www/Publications/Gutowski%20Mech%20En g%20Handbook%20Ch%20Dec%206%2020041.pdf Scientific Applications International Corporation. (2006). Life cycle assessment: Principles and practice. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/lcaccess/lca101.html.
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