Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Transcription Translation

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Transcription Translation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Transcription Translation
RNA Structure and Function Transcription Translation

2 RNA versus DNA

3 The Sugar Ribose

4 Four RNA Bases Adenine Uracil Guanine Cytosine

5 Types of RNA

6 mRNA Represents the sequence of codons (mRNA language) from the DNA strand. Brings the sequence to the ribosomes (site of protein synthesis) in the cytoplasm. Provides the sequence for the synthesis of specific protein from the amino acids (found in cytoplasm). mRNA = messenger RNA

7 rRNA rRNA = ribosomal RNA Function: forms a complex with various proteins and make a structure called ribosome, and this complex reads the coded sequence in mRNA to link amino acids together into particular proteins.

8 tRNA brings the amino acids to the ribosomes
Transfer RNA tRNA brings the amino acids to the ribosomes

9 The Central Dogma of Life.

10 Transcription Transcription is the process by which RNA is built from a template of DNA

11 Transcription

12 Editing mRNA Introns and exons are parts of genes. Exons code for proteins, whereas introns do not.

13 Transcription Translation
The mRNA sequence leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm to be “read”. Translation

14 Translation Translation is the process by which protein is made from an mRNA template

15 Codons 4 different bases make up RNA
RNA is read in groups of three called a triplet One triplet is called a CODON Each CODON represents a specific amino acids Amino acids build proteins

16 Codons

17 Why Three Bases per Codon?
A one base code: 41 = 4 combinations A two base code: 42 = 16 combinations A three base code: 43 = 64 combinations There are twenty amino acids, so a three-base code is the minimum required.

18 tRNA Function: Transports amino acids floating in the cytoplasm to ribosomes for protein synthesis One end of the strand has guanine, while the other end carries the CCA combination of nitrogen bases. A triplet of nitrogen bases called anticodon is present on one of the loops. The anticodon pairs with the complementary codon on the mRNA molecule. tRNA strand is folded upon itself forming hydrogen bonded loops. It results in either a clover leaf pattern or hair pin pattern tRNA = transfer RNA Hydrogen bonds

19 Making a protein mRNA from nucleus travels through the cytoplasm to the ribosome On the mRNA, a start codon: AUG signals the beginning of a protein tRNA delivers specific amino acids and creates a polypeptide chain A release factor ends the process

20 Protein Synthesis

Download ppt "Transcription Translation"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google