Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Section 1 The Cycles of Matter"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 2 Section 1 The Cycles of Matter Cycles in NatureChapter 2Section 1The Cycles of Matter
2 The Cycles of Matter 1. What is matter? Anything that takes up space and has massUsed over and over again2. How old is the matter in your body?It has been on Earth since it was formed billions of years ago
3 Water CycleMovement of water among oceans, atmosphere, land, and living things
4 Water Cycle 1. Precipitation Happens when water moves from the atmosphere to land and oceansRain, snow, sleet , and hail
5 Water Cycle 2. Evaporation The sun’s heat causes water to change from liquid to vapor
6 Water Cycle 3. Condensation When water vapor cools it forms a liquid that can fall back to Earth as precipitation
7 Water Cycle 4. Ground Water A. Water that is found underground and stored in caverns or porous rockB. May stay in the ground for hundreds or thousands of yearsC. Provides water to soil, streams, rivers, and oceans
8 Water Cycle 5. Transpiration A. Plants move water vapor into the atmosphereB. Plants do this by releasing water vapor through tiny openings in their leaves
9 Water and Life A. Our body is made up of 70% water B. Water carries waste away from our body tissuesC. Water helps regulate body temperature through perspiration “sweating” and evaporationThis way of returning water to the environment is called- transpiration
10 Bell WorkDraw the water cycle in your science notebook or science binderInclude in your drawing pictures and explanations for the processYour drawing should includeEvaporationCondensationPrecipitationTranspirationGroundwaterSunTreeClouds
11 Bell WorkWhat process in the water cycle changes water from a liquid to water vapor (gas)?What process in the water cycle changes water from a gas to a liquid?
12 CarbonWhat is GOOD about Carbon?What is BAD about Carbon?
13 Carbon Cycle Carbon Carbon Cycle All living things need carbon because it is part of all biological molecules (fats, sugars, proteins)Carbon CycleMovement of carbon from the environment into living things and back to the environment
14 Carbon Cycle 1. Photosynthesis A. How carbon cycles from the environment into living thingsB. Plants use CO2 from the air to make sugars (or their own food)C. Animals get carbon they need from eating plants
15 Carbon Cycle 2. Cellular Respiration A. How carbon returns to the environment from living thingsB. Living things break down sugar molecules to release energyC. During this process, CO2 and water are released
16 Photosynthesis/Cellular Respiration Equations (process of changing light energy into chemical energy)Sunlight+CO2+water (produces) glucose+O2Cellular Respiration(process when cells break down food to get energy)Glucose+O2 (produces) Energy+CO2+water
17 Bell WorkName the process in the carbon cycle where carbon is moved from the environment into living things?Hint (What process uses carbon dioxide (CO2)?
18 Carbon Cycle 3. Decomposition A. Break down of dead material into CO2 and H2OB. When fungi and bacteria decompose organic matter, they return CO2 to the environment
19 Carbon Cycle 4. Combustion A. Process of burning fossil fuels B. Fossil fuels-materials that are slowly formed underground from the remains of plants and animals that died million of years ago
20 Carbon Cycle (combustion cont.) C. Carbon in coal, oil, and natural gas return to atmosphere as CO2 when these fossil fuels are burnedD. Combustion provides the fuel people need to drive cars, heat homes, and make electricityE. Deforestation-removal of forests
22 How has Carbon Dioxide levels changed in the atmosphere? A. CO2 in the atmosphere has increased since the burning of more fossil fuelsB. Many scientists believe that extra CO2 from fossil fuels is adding to global warming
24 Carbon CycleDraw the carbon cycle in your science notebook or science binderInclude in your drawing pictures and explanations for the processYour drawing should include:Photosynthesis Cellular RespirationDecomposition CombustionTree or plants AnimalsFossil fuels Use of fossil fuelsDeforestation
25 Quiz Review 1. Where does most of Earth’s precipitation fall? 2. What is the process where sunlight, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water is used to make glucose?3. What is the process where glucose is broken down for energy and carbon dioxide is released?
26 Quiz Review 4. What are fossil fuels? Name 3 examples. 5. Name 3 ways carbon dioxide is transferred from living things into the environment?6. What is the water cycle process where liquid water returns to the atmosphere?
27 Quiz Review7. What is the process called when water vapor cools? And what is formed?8. What is deforestation?9. What is released during decomposition?10. Where is carbon found?
28 Nitrogen CycleThe movement of nitrogen from the environment to living things and back again
29 Nitrogen Cycle A. 78% of the Earth’s atmosphere is nitrogen gas (N2) B. Most organisms can not use the nitrogen in the air they breatheC. Living things need nitrogen to make proteinsHow do living things get nitrogen?A.Nitrogen fixation-when bacteria in the soil change nitrogen gas into a formed that can be used by plantsB. Most animals get their nitrogen they need from eating plants
30 Nitrogen CycleD. Animal wastes return nitrogen back to the soil and plants use this nitrogenE. When plant or animals die, decomposers break down the remains and nitrogen recycles back into the soil
31 Nitrogen CycleHow does nitrogen get from the soil back into the atmosphere?Denitrification-to take nitrogen out of the soil and change it to nitrogen gas that is released into the atmosphereDenitrifying bacteria produce nitrogen gas as a waste that is released in the atmosphere and completes the cycle
32 FungiHow is this fungi important to the carbon cycle?
33 Manure (animal waste)Why is this farmer spreading manure on the field?Explain the importance of this procedure in the nitrogen cycle?
34 Bell Work 1. Why do we need nitrogen? 2. What is the process when bacteria change nitrogen into a usable form that can be used by plants?3. What is the process when bacteria take nitrogen out of the soil and change it to a gas that is released in the atmosphere?