Presentation on theme: "Effect of Agriculture in Nitrogen Budget of Turkey"— Presentation transcript:
1Effect of Agriculture in Nitrogen Budget of Turkey Aysun VATANSEVER BOŞÇAMinistry of Environment and UrbanizationAssoc.Prof.Dr. Selim L. SANİNHacettepe Universıty
2The impact of anthropogenic activities on nitrogen cycle has become significantly important. Today the nitrogen fixation has doubled compared to times before the industrial revolution.This will affect the ecology of agriculturally leading countries, like Turkey.Recent increases in anthropogenic N fixation in relation to “natural” N fixation. Modified from Vitousek, P. M. and P. A. Matson (1993).
4Anthropogenic reactive nitrogen in the environment is difficult to control, because it is associated with two of the most important need of human needs:Food & Energy
5Turkey: total area 779 450 km² divided into 7 geographical regions, comprising 81 provinces.major economic activities are;- industry (34% of GDP, labor force 15%),- services (48% of GDP, labor force 39%) and- agriculture (18% of GDP, labor force: 47% )
6In terms of employment,agriculture is the most important sector in the Turkish economy.Agriculture is an important contributor to foreign trade as well and supplies 14% of total exports and accounts for 6% of total imports
7Agricultural Activities FOR OUR MODEL:N-budget elements ofAgricultural crop production&Livestock productionare defined and their contributions are calculated.
8Agriculture Application of inorganic (mineral) fertilizers Nitrogen uptaken by crops from soilN-fixation:Nitrogen input to soil by- nitrogen fixing plants- free living soil organisms
91. Total chemical fertilizer-N consumption trend of Turkey
10Distribution of Fertilizer-N consumption with respect to provinces (in 2005 [1000 tones])
112. N uptake by PlantsThe plants produced in Turkey are divided into three groups by Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK) according to ISIC Rev.3 (International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities, Rev.3):- Fruits- Vegetables- Field crops (leguminous plants, industrial crops,cereals, oil seeds, fodder crops, tuberous crops)Nitrogen uptake coefficients of different plants provided by OECD for each plant group are used.
193. a) Nitrogen fixation through the action of bacteria which live symbiotically in root nodules of leguminous cropsThe amount of N fixed in the soil by symbiotic bacteria is directly related to the area under crop and is calculated as:Quantity of N fixed in the soil [kg N]=Cultivated area of leguminous crop [hectare]XN fixation coefficient for the given crop [kg N/hectare]
20Coefficients for nitrogen fixation by bacteria living in the roots of plants (OECD) PLANT TYPEN-coefficient(kg N/hectare)Broad bean83PeaKidney beansWild vetchesFenugreekWild peaBean (dry)Cow vetchesLentilGrass peaChick peaClover250AlfalfaSoybean100
21Amount of Nitrogen fixed by N-fixing leguminous plants (tones)
223. b) Nitrogen fixation by Free living soil organisms: The amount of N fixed by free living soil organisms is directly related to the land area data, i.e. arable, permanent crop and permanent pasture land, and is calculated as;Quantity of N fixed by free living soil organisms [kg N]=area of each type of land [hectare]XN fixation coefficient for the given type of land [kg N/hectare]
23N coefficient = 4 kg/hectare Agricultural and forest areas (1000 hectare)Nitrogen (tones)YearsTotal arable landTotal land under permanent cropsLand under permanent meadows and pasturesTotal utilized agricultural landTotal arable land198824.7862.97714.17741.94099.14411.90856.708198924.8803.01742.07499.52012.068199024.8273.02942.03399.30812.116199124.6313.02312.37840.03298.52412.09249.512199224.5633.01239.95398.25212.048199324.4813.05439.91397.92412.216199424.6053.06640.04998.42012.264199524.3732.46139.21297.4929.844199624.5142.47239.36498.0569.888199724.2972.56739.24297.18810.268199824.4362.53039.34497.74410.120199924.2792.52339.18097.11610.092200023.8262.55338.75795.30410.212200123.8002.55014.61740.96795.20010.20058.468200223.9942.58541.19695.97610.340200323.3722.65640.64593.48810.624200423.8712.72241.21095.48410.888200523.8302.77641.22395.32011.104200622.9812.89540.49391.92411.580200721.9792.90939.50587.91611.636200821.5552.95039.12286.22011.800200921.3512.94338.91185.40411.772201021.3843.01039.01185.53612.040
24Livestock Production 5 main categories of animals 1. Cattle Breeding (4 sub-categories)native, hybrid, culture, cow2. Sheep and Goat Farming (4 sub-categories)native sheep, merinos sheep, hair goat, angora goat3. Poultry Raising (4 sub-categories)broiler, laying hen, goose, duck4. Single Shank Raising (3 sub-categories)horse-donkey-hinny5. Other (3 sub-categories)pig, camel
25For each livestock category: Estimated quantity of N in livestock manure [kg N/year]=Number of animals [heads]XManure coefficient [kg N/head/year]