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Effect of Agriculture in Nitrogen Budget of Turkey Aysun VATANSEVER BOŞÇA Ministry of Environment and Urbanization Assoc.Prof.Dr. Selim L. SANİN Hacettepe.

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Presentation on theme: "Effect of Agriculture in Nitrogen Budget of Turkey Aysun VATANSEVER BOŞÇA Ministry of Environment and Urbanization Assoc.Prof.Dr. Selim L. SANİN Hacettepe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Effect of Agriculture in Nitrogen Budget of Turkey Aysun VATANSEVER BOŞÇA Ministry of Environment and Urbanization Assoc.Prof.Dr. Selim L. SANİN Hacettepe Universıty

2 Recent increases in anthropogenic N fixation in relation to “natural” N fixation. Modified from Vitousek, P. M. and P. A. Matson (1993). The impact of anthropogenic activities on nitrogen cycle has become significantly important. Today the nitrogen fixation has doubled compared to times before the industrial revolution. This will affect the ecology of agriculturally leading countries, like Turkey.

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4 Anthropogenic reactive nitrogen in the environment is difficult to control, because it is associated with two of the most important need of human needs: Food & Energy

5 Turkey: total area km² divided into 7 geographical regions, comprising 81 provinces. major economic activities are; - industry (34% of GDP, labor force 15%), - services (48% of GDP, labor force 39%) and - agriculture (18% of GDP, labor force: 47% )

6 In terms of employment, agriculture is the most important sector in the Turkish economy. Agriculture is an important contributor to foreign trade as well and supplies 14% of total exports and accounts for 6% of total imports

7 Agricultural Activities FOR OUR MODEL: N-budget elements of Agricultural crop production & Livestock production are defined and their contributions are calculated.

8 Agriculture Application of inorganic (mineral) fertilizers Nitrogen uptaken by crops from soil N-fixation: Nitrogen input to soil by - nitrogen fixing plants - free living soil organisms

9 1. Total chemical fertilizer-N consumption trend of Turkey

10 Distribution of Fertilizer-N consumption with respect to provinces (in 2005 [1000 tones])

11 2. N uptake by Plants The plants produced in Turkey are divided into three groups by Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK) according to ISIC Rev.3 (International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities, Rev.3): - Fruits - Vegetables - Field crops (leguminous plants, industrial crops, cereals, oil seeds, fodder crops, tuberous crops) Nitrogen uptake coefficients of different plants provided by OECD for each plant group are used.

12 Nitrogen uptake coefficients of different plants N-coefficient (kg Nitrogen/tone production) FRUITS Raspberry 6 Pears 6 Pistachios 6 Avocado 6 Quinces 6 Almonds6 Walnuts 6 Tea 15 Strawberry 6 Mulberry 6 Apple 6 Plums 6 Hazelnuts 6 Grape fruits 4 Oleaster 6 Figs 6 Apricots 6 Carobs 6 Chestnuts 6 FRUITS N-coefficient (kg Nitrogen/ton eproduction) Cornel 6 Lemons 4 Mandarin 4 Medlar 6 Bananas 6 Pomegranates 6 Oranges 4 Peaches 6 Persimmons 6 Sour oranges 4 Grape 6 Sour cherries 6 Loquats 6 Wild apricots 6 Olive 6 Kiwi 6 Cherries 6

13 VEGETABLES N-coefficient (kg Nitrogen/tone production) Hairy 4 Broad bean 4 Pumpkin 4 Okra 4 Reddish shell bean 4 Pea 4 Pepper 4 Kidney beans 4 Broccoli 4 Dill 4 Tomatoes 4 Artichokes 4 bean 4 Carrots 4 Cucumbers 4 Spinach 4 (Sakız) 4 Cauliflower 4 Celeriac 4 Red Beets 4 Asparagus 4 Cabbages 4 Water Melon4 Melon4

14 FIELD CROPS N-coefficient (kg Nitrogen/ton production) CEREALS Barley 20 Wheat 20 Rye 21 Rice in the husk 20 Millet 40 Canary gras 20 Mixed grain 20 Maize 20 Oats 21 LEGUMINOUS PLANTS Broad bean 31 Pea 31 Kidney beans 31 Wild vetches 31 Fenugreek 31 Wild pea 31 Bean (dry) 31 Cow vetches 31 Lentil 31 Grass pea 31 Chick pea 31 INDUSTRIAL CROPS Lupin 22 Anise 22 Poppy (kapsule) 22 FIELD CROPS N-coefficient (kg Nitrogen/ton production ) Theyme 22 Cumin 22 Dry pepper 22 Cotton (lint) 65 Sugar beets 3 Hop 43 Tobacco 46 OIL SEEDS Safflower 28 Sunflower 32 Cotton seed 65 Poppy (seed) 28 Flax 5 Rapeseed 38 Soybean 65 Sesame 28 Groundnut 63 FODDER CROPS Wild vetches11 Cow vetches11 Sainfoin11 Maize5 Clover17 Alfalfa17 TUBEROUS CROPS Beets for fodder4 Potatoes5 Garlic4 Onion4

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19 3. a) Nitrogen fixation through the action of bacteria which live symbiotically in root nodules of leguminous crops The amount of N fixed in the soil by symbiotic bacteria is directly related to the area under crop and is calculated as: Quantity of N fixed in the soil [kg N] = Cultivated area of leguminous crop [hectare] X N fixation coefficient for the given crop [kg N/hectare]

20 Coefficients for nitrogen fixation by bacteria living in the roots of plants (OECD) PLANT TYPE N-coefficient (kg N/hectare) Broad bean83 Pea83 Kidney beans83 Wild vetches83 Fenugreek83 Wild pea83 Bean (dry)83 Cow vetches83 Lentil83 Grass pea83 Chick pea83 Clover250 Alfalfa250 Soybean100

21 Amount of Nitrogen fixed by N-fixing leguminous plants (tones)

22 3. b) Nitrogen fixation by Free living soil organisms: The amount of N fixed by free living soil organisms is directly related to the land area data, i.e. arable, permanent crop and permanent pasture land, and is calculated as; Quantity of N fixed by free living soil organisms [kg N] = area of each type of land [hectare] X N fixation coefficient for the given type of land [kg N/hectare]

23 N coefficient = 4 kg/hectare Agricultural and forest areas (1000 hectare) Nitrogen (tones) Years Total arable land Total land under permanent crops Land under permanent meadows and pastures Total utilized agricultural land Total arable land Total land under permanent crops Land under permanent meadows and pastures Total utilized agricultural land

24 Livestock Production 5 main categories of animals 1. Cattle Breeding (4 sub-categories) native, hybrid, culture, cow 2. Sheep and Goat Farming (4 sub-categories) native sheep, merinos sheep, hair goat, angora goat 3. Poultry Raising (4 sub-categories) broiler, laying hen, goose, duck 4. Single Shank Raising (3 sub-categories) horse-donkey-hinny 5. Other (3 sub-categories) pig, camel

25 For each livestock category: Estimated quantity of N in livestock manure [kg N/year] = Number of animals [heads] X Manure coefficient [kg N/head/year ]

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27 Animal Manure Nitrogen ProductionSpecies Cattle Breeding Sheep and Goat Farming Poultry Raising Single Shank (horse-donkey-hinny) Raising Other Total (kg) Total (tones)

28 Animal Manure-N production with respect to years (Tones)

29 Distribution of Animal manure-N with respect to provinces at 2005 (1000 tones)

30 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION


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