Presentation on theme: "Effect of Agriculture in Nitrogen Budget of Turkey Aysun VATANSEVER BOŞÇA Ministry of Environment and Urbanization Assoc.Prof.Dr. Selim L. SANİN Hacettepe."— Presentation transcript:
Effect of Agriculture in Nitrogen Budget of Turkey Aysun VATANSEVER BOŞÇA Ministry of Environment and Urbanization Assoc.Prof.Dr. Selim L. SANİN Hacettepe Universıty
Recent increases in anthropogenic N fixation in relation to “natural” N fixation. Modified from Vitousek, P. M. and P. A. Matson (1993). The impact of anthropogenic activities on nitrogen cycle has become significantly important. Today the nitrogen fixation has doubled compared to times before the industrial revolution. This will affect the ecology of agriculturally leading countries, like Turkey.
Anthropogenic reactive nitrogen in the environment is difficult to control, because it is associated with two of the most important need of human needs: Food & Energy
Turkey: total area km² divided into 7 geographical regions, comprising 81 provinces. major economic activities are; - industry (34% of GDP, labor force 15%), - services (48% of GDP, labor force 39%) and - agriculture (18% of GDP, labor force: 47% )
In terms of employment, agriculture is the most important sector in the Turkish economy. Agriculture is an important contributor to foreign trade as well and supplies 14% of total exports and accounts for 6% of total imports
Agricultural Activities FOR OUR MODEL: N-budget elements of Agricultural crop production & Livestock production are defined and their contributions are calculated.
Agriculture Application of inorganic (mineral) fertilizers Nitrogen uptaken by crops from soil N-fixation: Nitrogen input to soil by - nitrogen fixing plants - free living soil organisms
1. Total chemical fertilizer-N consumption trend of Turkey
Distribution of Fertilizer-N consumption with respect to provinces (in 2005 [1000 tones])
2. N uptake by Plants The plants produced in Turkey are divided into three groups by Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK) according to ISIC Rev.3 (International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities, Rev.3): - Fruits - Vegetables - Field crops (leguminous plants, industrial crops, cereals, oil seeds, fodder crops, tuberous crops) Nitrogen uptake coefficients of different plants provided by OECD for each plant group are used.
3. a) Nitrogen fixation through the action of bacteria which live symbiotically in root nodules of leguminous crops The amount of N fixed in the soil by symbiotic bacteria is directly related to the area under crop and is calculated as: Quantity of N fixed in the soil [kg N] = Cultivated area of leguminous crop [hectare] X N fixation coefficient for the given crop [kg N/hectare]
Coefficients for nitrogen fixation by bacteria living in the roots of plants (OECD) PLANT TYPE N-coefficient (kg N/hectare) Broad bean83 Pea83 Kidney beans83 Wild vetches83 Fenugreek83 Wild pea83 Bean (dry)83 Cow vetches83 Lentil83 Grass pea83 Chick pea83 Clover250 Alfalfa250 Soybean100
Amount of Nitrogen fixed by N-fixing leguminous plants (tones)
3. b) Nitrogen fixation by Free living soil organisms: The amount of N fixed by free living soil organisms is directly related to the land area data, i.e. arable, permanent crop and permanent pasture land, and is calculated as; Quantity of N fixed by free living soil organisms [kg N] = area of each type of land [hectare] X N fixation coefficient for the given type of land [kg N/hectare]
N coefficient = 4 kg/hectare Agricultural and forest areas (1000 hectare) Nitrogen (tones) Years Total arable land Total land under permanent crops Land under permanent meadows and pastures Total utilized agricultural land Total arable land Total land under permanent crops Land under permanent meadows and pastures Total utilized agricultural land
Livestock Production 5 main categories of animals 1. Cattle Breeding (4 sub-categories) native, hybrid, culture, cow 2. Sheep and Goat Farming (4 sub-categories) native sheep, merinos sheep, hair goat, angora goat 3. Poultry Raising (4 sub-categories) broiler, laying hen, goose, duck 4. Single Shank Raising (3 sub-categories) horse-donkey-hinny 5. Other (3 sub-categories) pig, camel
For each livestock category: Estimated quantity of N in livestock manure [kg N/year] = Number of animals [heads] X Manure coefficient [kg N/head/year ]
Animal Manure Nitrogen ProductionSpecies Cattle Breeding Sheep and Goat Farming Poultry Raising Single Shank (horse-donkey-hinny) Raising Other Total (kg) Total (tones)
Animal Manure-N production with respect to years (Tones)
Distribution of Animal manure-N with respect to provinces at 2005 (1000 tones)