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10. Alkyl Halides Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition.

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Presentation on theme: "10. Alkyl Halides Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 10. Alkyl Halides Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition

2 2 What Is an Alkyl Halide An organic compound containing at least one carbon-halogen bond (C-X) (C must have sp 3 hybridization) X (F, Cl, Br, I) replaces H Can contain many C-X bonds Properties and some uses Fire-resistant solvents Refrigerants Pharmaceuticals and precursors

3 Naming Alkyl Halides Name is based on longest carbon chain (Contains double or triple bond if present) Number from end nearest any substituent (alkyl or halogen)

4 4 Naming with Multiple Halides If more than one of the same kind of halogen is present, use prefix di, tri, tetra If there are several different halogens, number them and list them in alphabetical order

5 5 Naming if Two Halides or Alkyl Are Equally Distant from Ends of Chain Begin at the end nearer the substituent whose name comes first in the alphabet

6 6 Many Alkyl Halides That Are Widely Used Have Common Names Chloroform Carbon tetrachloride Methylene chloride Methyl iodide Trichloroethylene

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8 Structure of Alkyl Halides C-X bond is longer as you go down periodic table C-X bond is weaker as you go down periodic table C-X bond is polarized with slight positive on carbon and slight negative on halogen

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10 Preparing Alkyl Halides Alkyl halide is from addition of HCl, HBr, HI to alkenes to give Markovnikov product (see Alkenes chapter) Alkyl dihalide from anti addition of bromine or chlorine

11 11 Propagation step 1 is the rate- determining step!

12 12 Reaction of Alkanes with Halogens Alkane + Cl 2 or Br 2, heat or light replaces C-H with C- X but Gives Mixtures Hard to control Via free radical mechanism See mechanism in Figure 1-1 It is usually not a good idea to plan a synthesis that uses this method

13 Radical Halogenation of Alkanes If there is more than one type of hydrogen in an alkane, reactions favor replacing the hydrogen at the most highly substituted carbons (not absolute) If all H’s reacted at same rate, what would be ratio?

14 14 Relative Reactivity Based on quantitative analysis of reaction products, relative reactivity is estimated Order parallels stability of radicals Reaction distinction is more selective with bromine than chlorine (See Figure 10-2)

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18 18 Slow steps tend to be more selective.

19 19 Chapter 9 Homework 14 – 24, 26 – 28, 30 –33, 35, 36, 38, 42

20 Allylic Bromination of Alkenes N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) selectively brominates allylic positions Requires light for activation A source of dilute bromine atoms

21 21 Allylic Stabilization Allyl radical is delocalized More stable than typical alkyl radical by 40 kJ/mol (9 kcal/mol Allylic radical is more stable than tertiary alkyl radical

22 Stability of the Allyl Radical: Resonance Revisited Three electrons are delocalized over three carbons Spin density surface shows single electron is dispersed

23 23 Use of Allylic Bromination Allylic bromination with NBS creates an allylic bromide Reaction of an allylic bromide with base produces a conjugated diene, useful in synthesis of complex molecules

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25 25 Allylic rearrangement

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27 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alcohols Reaction of tertiary C-OH with HX is fast and effective Add HCl or HBr gas into ether solution of tertiary alcohol Primary and secondary alcohols react very slowly and often rearrange, so alternative methods are used

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31 Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Grignard Reagents Reaction of RX with Mg in ether or THF Product is RMgX – an organometallic compound (alkyl-metal bond) R is alkyl 1°, 2°, 3°, aryl, alkenyl X = Cl, Br, I

32 32 Reactions of Grignard Reagents Many useful reactions RMgX behaves as R - R - adds to C=O as nucleophile (chap 17) R - acts as very strong base RMgX + H 3 O +  R-H

33 33 Table 8.1 pK a ’s alkanes 60, alkenes 44, alkynes 25

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35 Organometallic Coupling Reactions Alkyllithium (RLi) forms from RBr and Li metal RLi reacts with copper iodide to give lithium dialkylcopper (Gilman reagents) Lithium dialkylcopper reagents react with alkyl halides to give alkanes

36 Organometallic Coupling Reactions Alkyllithium (RLi) forms from RBr and Li metal RLi reacts with copper iodide to give lithium dialkylcopper (Gilman reagents) Lithium dialkylcopper reagents react with alkyl halides to give alkanes

37 37 Utility of Organometallic Coupling in Synthesis Coupling of two organometallic molecules produces larger molecules of defined structure Aryl and vinyl organometallics also effective Coupling of lithium dialkylcopper molecules proceeds through trialkylcopper intermediate

38 Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry In organic chemistry, we say that oxidation occurs when a carbon or hydrogen that is connected to a carbon atom in a structure is replaced by oxygen, nitrogen, or halogen Not defined as loss of electrons by an atom as in inorganic chemistry Oxidation is a reaction that results in loss of electron density at carbon (as more electronegative atoms replace hydrogen or carbon) Oxidation: break C-H (or C-C) and form C-O, C-N, C-X

39 39 Reduction Reactions Organic reduction is the opposite of oxidation Results in gain of electron density at carbon (replacement of electronegative atoms by hydrogen or carbon) Reduction: form C-H (or C-C) and break C-O, C-N, C-X

40 40 Oxidation Levels Functional groups are associated with specific levels


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