What Is an Alkyl Halide These are compounds containing a halogen bonded to a carbon atom. The Frog
What Is an Alkyl Halide These are compounds containing a halogen bonded to a carbon atom.
Naming Alkyl Halides Identify the longest continuous carbon chain It must contain any double or triple bond if present Number from end nearest any substituent (alkyl or halogen) If any multiple bonds are present, number from end closest to these
Naming with Multiple Halides If more than one of the same kind of halogen is present, use prefix di, tri, tetra If there are several different halogens, number them and list them in alphabetical order
Naming if Two Halides or Alkyl Are Equally Distant from Ends of Chain Begin at the end nearer the substituent whose name comes first in the alphabet
Many Alkyl Halides That Are Widely Used Have Common Names Chloroform Carbon tetrachloride Methylene chloride Methyl iodide Trichloroethylene
Structure of Alkyl Halides C-X bond is longer as you go down periodic table C-X bond is weaker as you go down periodic table The most important aspect of alkyl halides is the polarity of the C--X bond. As the halogen atom is more electronegative than the carbon, the C--X bond is polarized in such a way that the carbon atom has a partially positive charge while the halogen possesses a partial negative charge.
Preparing Alkyl Halides The most effective means of preparing an alkyl halide is from addition of HCl, HBr, HI to alkenes to give Markovnikov product (see Alkenes chapter) Alkyl dihalides are prepared from anti addition of bromine (Br 2 ) or chlorine (Cl 2 )
Another Method of Prepping Alkyl Halides is the Free Radical Halogenation of Alkanes This is a generally a poor method of alkyl halide prep because mixtures of products invariably result. This reaction does not stop at the monochlorination stage but may continue to give dichloro, trichloro and even tetrachloro products. Furthermore alkanes having more than one kind of hydrogen give more than one kind of monochlorination product in addition to the polychlorination products
Mechanism For the Radical Halogenation of Methane
Relative Reactivity Based on quantitative analysis of reaction products, we can calculate a relative reactivity order As this reaction is a Radical Reaction the order parallels the stability order of alkyl radicals
Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alcohols Reaction of tertiary C-OH with HX is fast and effective Add HCl or HBr gas into ether solution of tertiary alcohol
Preparation of Alkyl Halides from Primary and Secondary Alcohols Specific reagents are needed to conver primary and secondary alcohols into the corresponding alkyl halides Thionyl chloride converts 1 0 and 2 0 alcohols into alkyl chlorides (SOCl 2 : ROH RCl) Phosphorus tribromide converts 1 0 and 2 0 alcohols into alkyl bromides (PBr 3 : ROH RBr)
Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Grignard Reagents Reaction of RX with Mg in ether or THF Product is RMgX – an organometallic compound (alkyl-metal bond) R is alkyl 1°, 2°, 3°, aryl, alkenyl X = Cl, Br, I
Reactions of Grignard Reagents Many useful reactions RMgX behaves as R - (adds to any positive carbon - for instance: (C=O) RMgX + H 3 O + R-H
Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Nucleophilic Substitutions and Eliminations
The Reaction of Nucleophiles (Bases) with Alkyl Halides For the most part, these reactions will be nucleophilic substitution reactions in which the nucleophile substitutes for the halogen in the alkyl halide. We will also look at base induced elimination of HX from alkyl halides to form alkenes Nucleophilic substitution reactions- these are the most common characteristic reactions of alkyl halides. Nucleophilic substitution reactions are predicated on the electrophilic nature of the alkyl halide. Base ++ ++ ++
Structure of Alkyl Halides C-X bond becomes longer as you go down periodic table C-X bond is weaker as you go down periodic table The most important aspect of alkyl halides is the polarity of the C--X bond. As the halogen atom is more electronegative than the carbon, the C--X bond is polarized in such a way that the carbon atom has a partially positive charge while the halogen possesses a partial negative charge. Nu-
The Nature of Nucleophiles The electron rich nucleophiles can be any chemical species that has an unshared pair of electrons and/or possibly a negative charge
Mechanisms of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions The determination of reaction rates and, more importantly, dependence of those rates on the concentration of reactant(s) can be very useful in the determination of reaction mechanisms. Reaction rates studies have shown that there are two types of mechanisms possible for Nucleophilic Substitution reactions(N.S. reactions). These two mechanisms are referred to as S N 2 andS N 1 S N 2 means substitution nucleophilic bimolecular S N 1 means substitution nucleophilic unimolecular
How to predict which Mechanism S N 1 or S N 2 will be followed in a reaction The mechanism (S N 1 or S N 2) that applies to a particular reaction is primarily dependent upon the class of alkyl halide that is being reacted O o +1 o alkyl halides undergo N.S. reactions by the S N 2 mechanism. 3 o alkyl halide undergo N.S. reactions by the S N 1 mechanism. 2 o alkyl halides undergo N.S. reactions by the S N 1 and/ or S N 2 depending upon the reaction conditions.
S N 2 Mechanism The S N 2 Mechanism was deduced from reaction rate studies on 1 o alkyl halides + methylhalides(0 0 ). These reaction rate studies showed that 1 o and 0 0 alkyl halide undergo N.S. via a second order reaction rate. This means that the reaction rate was dependant upon the concentration of both reactants; the alkyl halide (R-X) and the Nucleophile (:Nu - ). This statement can be expressed mathematically as: Reaction rate = Rate of disappearance of starting materials Reaction rate = k [CH 3 Br] [OH - ]
Dependence of S N 2 on Concentration of Reactants The fact that the reaction rate for our example problem follows second order kinetics means that the reaction rate is dependant upon both CH 3 Brand :OH -. If we double, half, triple or quadruple the conc. of either reactant we will double, half, triple or quadruple the rate of the reaction.
Number of Steps in an S N 2 Mechanism This rate information is consistent with a one-step mechanism that requires a collision of the two reactants. Hence the S N 2 mechanism was theorized to explain the rate data.
Specifics of the S N 2 Mechanism The specifics of the S N 2 mechanism involve the Nucleophile attacking the alkyl halide from the side 180 o opposite the halogen The stereochemistry of the S N 2 reaction mechanism involves complete inversion of configuration at the central carbon. This inversion of configuration may be likened to the inversion of an umbrella in a strong wind.
S N 2 Transition State The transition state in an S N 2 reaction has a planar arrangement of the carbon atom and the remaining three groups
Substrate (Alkyl Halide) Effect on S N 2 Mechanism Crowding of the transition state in S N 2 reaction by bulky alkyl groups increases the energy of the transition state and lowers the reaction rate The carbon atom in (a) bromomethane is readily accessible resulting in a fast S N 2 reaction ( low energy Transition State). The carbon atoms in (b) bromoethane (primary), (c) 2-bromopropane (secondary), and (d) 2-bromo-2- methylpropane (tertiary) are successively more hindered, resulting in successively slower S N 2 reactions (higher energy Transition States)
Order of Reactivity in S N 2 The more alkyl groups connected to the reacting carbon, the slower the reaction
Please Note How Varying the Reactant and Transition-state Energy Levels Effects the Rxn. Rate( G ‡ ) Higher reactant energy level (red curve) = faster reaction (smaller G ‡ ). Higher transition- state energy level (red curve) = slower reaction (larger G ‡ ).
Steric Hindrance in an S N 2 Rxn Raises Transition State Energy and Slows Rxn Steric effects destabilize transition states
S N 2 Mechanism and the Attacking Nucleophiles Some nucleophiles are more nucleophilic than others. Their reaction rates with the same alkyl halide are faster. *Stronger Nucleophiles react faster in an S N 2 reaction Negative Nucleophiles result in a neutral organic product Neutral Nucleophiles result in a positive organic product
What Determines the Strength of a Nucleophile? 1. When comparing nucleophiles that have the same attacking atom nucleophilicity usually increases as the basicity (tendency to take on a proton H + )of the nucleophile increases. Basicity can be roughly measured by the pK a values for the conjugate acid of the nucleophile. The ↑ pK a for the conjugate acid ↑ basicity for the base,↑ nucleophilicity for the base. 7.0 Nu - + H+ Nu H Acid Base Conjugate Acid The stronger the base the weaker is the Conj. Acid
Continued - What Determines the Strength of a Nucleophile? 2. Nucleophilicity usually increases as we go down a column of the periodic table. Thus HS: - is more nucleophilic than HO: - and the halide reactivity order is : I - > Br - > Cl - 3. Negatively charged nucleophiles are stronger than neutral ones. Thus OH -, SH - an CH 3 CH 2 O - are stronger that H 2 O,H 2 S and CH 3 CH 2 OH
S N 2 Mechanism and Leaving Groups The leaving groups in an S N 2 mechanism is usually the halide anion(:X - ). The rate of S N 2 reactions is also dependant upon the stability of the Leaving Groups. The more stable the Leaving Group the faster is the reaction (the lower is the Energy of the Transition State). The more stable the leaving group the less basic it is and consequently the lower is the pK a for its conjugate acid.
S N 2 Reactions and the Solvent Effect Most S N 2 reactions are carried out in methanol or ethanol because they are inexpensive and easily removed after the reaction. These solvents, however, are not the best solvents to use. Both ethanol and methanol are capable of hydrogen bonding to the nucleophile, lowering the energy of the reactant, and consequently increasing the activation energy barrier,decreasing the reaction rate.
The Best S N 2 Solvents The best S N 2 solvents are those that are incapable of Hydorgen bonding and yet are sufficiently polar to dissolve the polar nucleophilic reagent. These solvents are collectively referred to as:
A Summary of S N 2 Rxn. Characteristics The rxn occurs with inversion of configuration The rxn shows 2 nd order kinetics-is a one step rxn The effects of Substrate, Nucleophile, Leaving Group and Solvent are indicated by the following:
How to Predict Which Mechanism S N 1 or S N 2 Applies The mechanism (S N 1 or S N 2) that applies to a particular reaction is primarily dependent upon the class of alkyl halide that is being reacted O o +1 o alkyl halides undergo N.S. reactions by the S N 2 mechanism. 3 o alkyl halide undergo N.S. reactions by the S N 1 mechanism. 2 o alkyl halides undergo N.S. reactions by the S N 1 and/ or S N 2 depending upon the reaction conditions.
The S N 1 Rxn. Mechanism Reaction rate studies on the nucleophilic substitution of 3 o alkyl halides in protic solvents revealed interesting facts. The reaction rate for these reactions was a first order process. That is to say the reaction rate was only dependent on the concentration of alkyl halide. Rxn Rate = k [RX] The concentration of the nucleophile does not appear in the rate expression! If the concentration of alkyl halide is doubled, halfed or quadrupled the reaction rate will double, half or quadruple. If, on the other hand, the concentration of nucleophile is changed the reaction rate will be unaffected If the rate of this reaction does not depend upon the concentration of the Nucleophile this can only mean that: 1) the reaction mechanism involves more than one step 2) the slow step of the mechanism (rate determining step) does not involve the nucleophile These observations and assumptions indicate that the alkyl halide is involved in a unimolecular rate determining step. In other words the alkyl halide must undergo some sort of spontaneous unimolecular reaction without assistance from the nucleophilic. The mechanism shown on the following slide accounts for these kinetic observations
The S N 1 Rxn. Mechanism. This mechanism is referred to as “ Substitution Nucleophic Unimolecular or S N 1”. The term unimolecule relates to the fact that the slow step (rate determining step) involves only one molecule, the alkyl halide.
The S N 1 Rxn. And Substrate (Alkyl Halide) Since the slow step of the S N 1 reaction mechanism relates to the formation of the carbo-cation the reactivity of alkyl halide follows the stability order for carbo-cations ; 1 SN1 SN2
Stereochemistry of the S N 1 Reaction The S N 1 mechanism does not involve complete inversion of configuration, because the mechanism proceeds by way of a planar carbocation and once formed the nucleophile can attack the planar carbocation at either face. This leads to approx. 50% of product retaining its configuration and 50% being inverted. If we carry out an SN 1 reaction on chiral starting material then our product must be a 50:50 mix of enantiomers- a racemic, optically inactive, mixture. Actually a 60% inverted and 40% retained configuration is observed because of ion pairs. See next slide for further clarification.
The S N 1 Mechanism and the Leaving Group In the discussion of S N 2 reactivity we reasoned that the best leaving groups should be those that are the most stable anions (weakest bases) An identical reactivity order is formed for the S N 1 reaction, since in both cases the leaving group is intimately involved in the rate limiting step.
The S N 1 Mechanism and the Attacking Nucleophile Unlike S N 2 reactions, reactions that proceed by S N 1 mechanism do not require a strong nucleophile. The S N 1 reaction occurs though a rate limiting step in which the added nucleophile plays no kinetic role. The nucleophile does not enter into the reaction until after rate limiting production of carbocation has occurred See mechanism for this rxn on the next slide
S N 1 Reaction Mechanism and the Solvent Because S N 1 reactions proceed, thru a carbocation intermediate, any factor that stabilizes the carbocation intermediate should increase the rate of the reaction (lower Activation Energy ). One factor that stabilizes the carbocation is solvation. Solvation refers to the interaction of the carbocating with the solvent molecules. If the solvent molecules are very polar this interaction is a stabilizing one as the solvent molecules decrease the energy of the carbocation intermediate and make it easier to form. The best solvents for SN 1 reactions are H 2 O, alcohols and carboxylic acids. Polar protic solvents.
Alkyl Halides: Elimination. Elimination reactions may occur as competing side reactions whenever one attempts a nucleophilic substitution reaction. Whenever a nucleophilic reagent (Lewis base) attacks an alkyl halide the nucleophile many replace the halide to give the substitution product and / or HX may be eliminated-from the alkyl halide to form the alkene. The product formed depend upon the exact nature of the reaction and on the reaction conditions.
Elimination Reactions Elimination reactions can take place thru a variety of different mechanistic pathways. We will consider only the E 2 mechanism The E 2 ( for elimination, bimolecular) reaction is the most commonly occurring pathway for elimination. It is closely analogous to the S N 2 mechanism. The rxn rate = k x [RX][Base] The essential feature of the E 2 mechanism is that it is a one step process without intermediate. As the attacking base / nucleophile begins to abstract a proton from a carbon next to the leaving group, the C-H begins to break, a new carbon-carbon pi bond begins to form, and the leaving group begins to depart
Zaitsev’s Rule for Elimination Reactions (1875) In the elimination of HX from an unsymmetrical alkyl halide, the more highly substituted alkene product predominates
Summary of Reactivity SN 1,SN 2, E 2 We have examined three possible modes of reactions between an alkyl halide and a base / nucleophile, and you may well wonder how to predict what will happen in any given case. While it is difficult to provide definite answers there are some valuable generalization about what to expect 1. Primary alkyl halides react by either S N 2 or E 2 mechanisms. The S N 2 mechanism is highly favored under most conditions. The E 2 mechanism is favored only when the nucleophile is a strong bulky base such as t-butoxide. T-butoxide is a strong base because it readily reacts with a proton to form t-butanol but it is too bulky to act as an SN 2 nucleophile In such cases nucleophilic substitution (S N 2) discouraged as bulk of the nucleophile prohibits an effective back side attack. Potassium t-butoxide is (CH 3 ) 3 CO - K + See next slide for example rxn
Two Different Modes of Rxn for primary alkyl halide
Summary of Reactivity S N 1,S N 2, E 2 2. Secondary alkyl halides can react via any one of the three mechanism and chemists can often make one or the other pathway predominant by choosing appropriate reaction conditions. When the nucleophile is a strong base such as ethoxide (CH 3 CH 2 O - ) hydroxide (0H - ) or amide (NH 2 - ) ion E 2 elimination normally occurs Conversely, when the same 2 o alkyl halide is treated with a polar aprotic solvent such as DMSO or HMPA and the nucleophile is a weak base, S N 2 substitution usually occurs
Summary of Reactivity S N 1,S N 2, E 2 3. Tertiary Alkyl Halides- There can be made to react through 2 possible pathways- SN 1, and E 2. One of the two can be made to predominate if proper reaction conditions are chosen.When a 3 o alkyl halide is treated with strong base/ strong nucleophile E 2 predominate to the near exclusion of the other possibilities. Treating the 3 o alkyl halide with a weak base/weak nucleophile leads primarily to the S N 1 product