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CHE 311 Organic Chemistry I Dr. Jerome K. Williams, Ph.D. Saint Leo University.

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Presentation on theme: "CHE 311 Organic Chemistry I Dr. Jerome K. Williams, Ph.D. Saint Leo University."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHE 311 Organic Chemistry I Dr. Jerome K. Williams, Ph.D. Saint Leo University

2 Chapter 6. Alkyl Halides: Nucleophilic Substitution & Elimination Classes Alkyl Halides Polarity & Reactivity Alkyl Halides IUPAC Nomenclature & Classification Uses of Alkyl Halides Physical Properties Preparation of Alkyl Halides

3 Classes of Alkyl Halides Alkyl halides: Halogen is directly bonded to sp 3 carbon. Vinyl halides: Halogen is bonded to sp 2 carbon of alkene. Aryl halides: Halogen is bonded to sp 2 carbon on benzene ring. CC H H H Cl vinyl halide C H H H C H H Br alkyl halide I aryl halide Chapter 63

4 Polarity and Reactivity Halogens are more electronegative than C. Carbon—halogen bond is polar, so carbon has partial positive charge. Carbon can be attacked by a nucleophile. Halogen can leave with the electron pair. Chapter 64

5 IUPAC Nomenclature Name as haloalkane. Choose the longest carbon chain, even if the halogen is not bonded to any of those carbons. Use lowest possible numbers for position chlorobutane4-(2-fluoroethyl)heptane Chapter 65

6 Examples bromo-2-methylnonane 1 3 cis-1-bromo-3-fluorocyclohexane Chapter 66

7 Systematic Common Names The alkyl groups is a substituent on halide. Useful only for small alkyl groups. isobutyl bromidesec-butyl bromide tert-butyl bromide Chapter 67

8 Common Names of Halides CH 2 X 2 is called methylene halide. CHX 3 is a haloform. CX 4 is carbon tetrahalide. Common halogenated solvents: CH 2 Cl 2 is methylene chloride. CHCl 3 is chloroform. CCl 4 is carbon tetrachloride. Chapter 68

9 Alkyl Halides Classification Methyl halides: Halide is attached to a methyl group. Primary alkyl halide: Carbon to which halogen is bonded is attached to only one other carbon. Secondary alkyl halide: Carbon to which halogen is bonded is attached to two other carbons. Tertiary alkyl halide: Carbon to which halogen is bonded is attached to three other carbons. Chapter 69

10 Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Alkyl Halides Chapter 610

11 Types of Dihalides Geminal dihalide: Two halogen atoms are bonded to the same carbon. Vicinal dihalide: Two halogen atoms are bonded to adjacent carbons. Chapter 611

12 Uses of Alkyl Halides Industrial and household cleaners. Anesthetics: –CHCl 3 used originally as general anesthetic but it is toxic and carcinogenic. –CF 3 CHClBr is a mixed halide sold as Halothane. Freons are used as refrigerants and foaming agents. –Freons can harm the ozone layer, so they have been replaced by low-boiling hydrocarbons or carbon dioxide. Pesticides such as DDT are extremely toxic to insects but not as toxic to mammals. –Haloalkanes can not be destroyed by bacteria, so they accumulate in the soil to a level that can be toxic to mammals, especially humans. Chapter 612

13 Dipole Moments Electronegativities of the halides: F > Cl > Br > I Bond lengths increase as the size of the halogen increases: C—F < C—Cl < C—Br < C—I Bond dipoles: C—Cl > C—F > C—Br > C—I 1.56 D 1.51 D 1.48 D 1.29 D Molecular dipoles depend on the geometry of the molecule. Chapter 613

14 Dipole Moments and Molecular Geometry Notice how the four symmetrically oriented polar bonds of the carbon tetrahalides cancel to give a molecular dipole moment of zero. Chapter 614

15 Boiling Points Greater intermolecular forces, higher b.p. –Dipole-dipole attractions not significantly different for different halides. –London forces greater for larger atoms. Greater mass, higher b.p. Spherical shape decreases b.p. (CH 3 ) 3 CBr CH 3 (CH 2 ) 3 Br 73  C 102  C Chapter 615

16 Densities Alkyl fluorides and alkyl chlorides (those with just one chlorine atom) are less dense than water (1.00 g/mL). Alkyl chlorides with two or more chlorine atoms are denser than water. All alkyl bromides and alkyl iodides are denser than water. Chapter 616

17 Preparation of Alkyl Halides Free radical halogenation (Chapter 4) –Chlorination produces a mixtures of products. This reaction is not a good lab synthesis, except in alkanes where all hydrogens are equivalent. –Bromination is highly selective. Free radical allylic halogenation –Halogen is placed on a carbon directly attached to the double bond (allylic). Chapter 617

18 Halogenation of Alkanes Chlorination is not selective. Bromination is highly selective: 3º carbons > 2º carbons > 1º carbons Chapter 618

19 Allylic Bromination Allylic radicals are resonance stabilized. Bromination occurs with good yield at the allylic position (sp 3 C next to C C). Chapter 619

20 Reaction Mechanism The mechanism involves an allylic radical stabilized by resonance. Both allylic radicals can react with bromine. Chapter 620

21 N-Bromosuccinimide N-Bromosuccinimide (NBS) is an allylic brominating agent. Keeps the concentration of Br 2 low. Chapter 621

22 Example of Allylic Halogenation with NBS File Name: AAAKWEA0 Chapter 622

23 Practice Problems: Skill Building Problems Problems


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