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Created by Professor William Tam & Dr. Phillis Chang Ch. 6 - 1 Chapter 6 Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination Reactions of Alkyl Halides.

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Presentation on theme: "Created by Professor William Tam & Dr. Phillis Chang Ch. 6 - 1 Chapter 6 Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination Reactions of Alkyl Halides."— Presentation transcript:

1 Created by Professor William Tam & Dr. Phillis Chang Ch Chapter 6 Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination Reactions of Alkyl Halides

2 About The Authors These PowerPoint Lecture Slides were created and prepared by Professor William Tam and his wife, Dr. Phillis Chang. Professor William Tam received his B.Sc. at the University of Hong Kong in 1990 and his Ph.D. at the University of Toronto (Canada) in He was an NSERC postdoctoral fellow at the Imperial College (UK) and at Harvard University (USA). He joined the Department of Chemistry at the University of Guelph (Ontario, Canada) in 1998 and is currently a Full Professor and Associate Chair in the department. Professor Tam has received several awards in research and teaching, and according to Essential Science Indicators, he is currently ranked as the Top 1% most cited Chemists worldwide. He has published four books and over 80 scientific papers in top international journals such as J. Am. Chem. Soc., Angew. Chem., Org. Lett., and J. Org. Chem. Dr. Phillis Chang received her B.Sc. at New York University (USA) in 1994, her M.Sc. and Ph.D. in 1997 and 2001 at the University of Guelph (Canada). She lives in Guelph with her husband, William, and their son, Matthew. Ch

3 Ch Organic Halides  Halogens are more electronegative than carbon X = Cl, Br, I

4 Ch Carbon-Halogen Bond Lengths and Bond Strength increase decrease

5 Ch A.Physical Properties of Organic Halides: Boiling Point (bp/ o C)

6 Ch Physical Properties of Organic Halides: Density (  )

7 Ch Different Types of Organic Halides  Alkyl halides (haloalkanes) a 1 o chloridea 2 o bromidea 3 o iodide Attached to 1 carbon atom C Attached to 2 carbon atoms C C Attached to 3 carbon atoms C C C sp 3

8 Ch  Vinyl halides (Alkenyl halides)  Aryl halides  Acetylenic halides (Alkynyl halides)

9 Ch  Prone to undergo Nucleophilic Substitutions (S N ) and Elimination Reactions (E) (the focus of this Chapter)  Different reactivity than alkyl halides, and do not undergo S N or E reactions

10 Ch The Nu ⊖ donates an e ⊖ pair to the substrate The bond between C and LG breaks, giving both e ⊖ from the bond to LG The Nu ⊖ uses its e ⊖ pair to form a new covalent bond with the substrate C The LG gains the pair of e ⊖ originally bonded in the substrate 2. Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

11 Ch  Two types of mechanisms ●1 st type: S N 2 (concerted mechanism) Timing of The Bond Breaking & Bond Making Process

12 Ch slow r.d.s. k 1 << k 2 and k 3 fast ●2 nd type: S N 1 (stepwise mechanism)

13 Ch  A reagent that seeks a positive center  Has an unshared pair of e ⊖ e.g.: This is the positive center that the Nu ⊖ seeks 3. Nucleophiles

14 Ch  Examples:

15 Ch  To be a good leaving group, the substituent must be able to leave as a relatively stable, weakly basic molecule or ion e.g.: I ⊖, Br ⊖, Cl ⊖, TsO ⊖, MsO ⊖, H 2 O, NH 3 4. Leaving Groups

16 Ch  The rate of the substitution reaction is linearly dependent on the concentration of OH ⊖ and CH 3 Br  Overall, a second-order reaction  bimolecular 5. Kinetics of a Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction: An S N 2 Reaction

17 Ch  The rate of reaction can be measured by ●The consumption of the reactants (HO ⊖ or CH 3 Cl) or ●The appearance of the products (CH 3 OH or Cl ⊖ ) over time 5A.How Do We Measure the Rate of This Reaction?

18 Ch Time, t Concentration, M [CH 3 Cl] ↓ [CH 3 OH] ↑ Graphically … Rate = Δ[CH 3 Cl] ΔtΔt = − [CH 3 Cl] t=t − [CH 3 Cl] t=0 Time in seconds [CH 3 Cl] ↓ [CH 3 OH] ↑

19 Ch Time, t Concentration, M [CH 3 Cl] Initial Rate [CH 3 Cl] t=0 [CH 3 Cl] t=t Initial Rate (from slope) = − [CH 3 Cl] t=t − [CH 3 Cl] t=0 ΔtΔt

20 Ch  Example: [OH ⊖ ] t=0 [CH 3 Cl] t=0 Initial rate mole L -1, s -1 Result 1.0 M M4.9 × M M9.8 × Doubled 2.0 M M9.8 × Doubled 2.0 M M19.6 × Quadrupled

21 Ch  Conclusion: ●The rate of reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of either reactant. ●When the concentration of either reactant is doubled, the rate of reaction doubles.

22 Ch The Kinetic Rate Expression Rate α [OH ⊖ ][CH 3 Cl] [OH ⊖ ][CH 3 Cl] Initial Rate k = = 4.9 × L mol -1 s -1 Rate = k[OH ⊖ ][CH 3 Cl]

23 Ch negative OH ⊖ brings an e ⊖ pair to δ + C; δ – Br begins to move away with an e ⊖ pair O–C bond partially formed; C – Br bond partially broken. Configuration of C begins to invert O–C bond formed; Br ⊖ departed. Configuration of C inverted 6. A Mechanism for the S N 2 Reaction

24 Ch  A reaction that proceeds with a negative free-energy change (releases energy to its surroundings) is said to be exergonic  A reaction that proceeds with a positive free-energy change (absorbs energy from its surroundings) is said to be endergonic 7.Transition State Theory: Free Energy Diagrams

25 Ch  At 60 o C (333 K)  G o = -100 kJ/mol ●This reaction is highly exergonic ●This reaction is exothermic  H o = -75 kJ/mol

26 Ch ●Its equilibrium constant (K eq ) is  G o = –RT ln K eq ln K eq = –Go–Go RT = –(–100 kJ/mol) ( kJ K -1 mol -1 )(333 K) = 36.1 K eq = 5.0 ╳ 10 15

27 Ch A Free Energy Diagram for a Hypothetical S N 2 Reaction That Takes Place with a Negative  G o

28 Ch  The reaction coordinate indicates the progress of the reaction, in terms of the conversion of reactants to products  The top of the energy curve corresponds to the transition state for the reaction  The free energy of activation (  G ‡ ) for the reaction is the difference in energy between the reactants and the transition state  The free energy change for the reaction (  G o ) is the difference in energy between the reactants and the products

29 Ch A Free Energy Diagram for a Hypothetical Reaction with a Positive Free-Energy Change

30 Ch  A 10°C increase in temperature will cause the reaction rate to double for many reactions taking place near room temperature 7A.Temperature, Reaction Rate, and the Equilibrium Constant Distribution of energies at two different temperatures. The number of collisions with energies greater than the free energy of activation is indicated by the corresponding shaded area under each curve.

31 Ch  The relationship between the rate constant (k) and  G ‡ is exponential : Distribution of energies at two different temperatures. The number of collisions with energies greater than the free energy of activation is indicated by the corresponding shaded area under each curve. e = 2.718, the base of natural logarithms k 0 = absolute rate constant, which equals the rate at which all transition states proceed to products (At 25 o C, k 0 = 6.2 ╳ s  1 )

32 Ch  A reaction with a lower free energy of activation (  G ‡ ) will occur exponentially faster than a reaction with a higher  G ‡, as dictated by Distribution of energies at two different temperatures. The number of collisions with energies greater than the free energy of activation is indicated by the corresponding shaded area under each curve.

33 Ch EExothermic (  G o is negative) TThermodynamically favorable process Free Energy Diagram of S N 2 Reactions

34 Ch (R)(R) (S)(S) (inversion) IInversion of configuration 8.The Stereochemistry of S N 2 Reactions

35 Ch  Example: Nu ⊖ attacks from the TOP face. (inversion of configuration)

36 Ch  Example: Nu ⊖ attacks from the BACK face. (inversion of configuration)

37 Ch The Reaction of tert-Butyl Chloride with Hydroxide Ion: An S N 1 Reaction The rate of S N 1 reactions depends only on concentration of the alkyl halide and is independent on concentration of the Nu ⊖ Rate = k[RX] In other words, it is a first-order reaction  unimolecular nucleophilic substitution

38 Ch In a multistep reaction, the rate of the overall reaction is the same as the rate of the SLOWEST step, known as the rate-determining step (r.d.s) For example: k 1 << k 2 or k 3 9A.Multistep Reactions & the Rate- Determining Step

39 Ch  The opening A is much smaller than openings B and C  The overall rate at which sand reaches to the bottom of the hourglass is limited by the rate at which sand falls through opening A  Opening A is analogous to the rate-determining step of a multistep reaction A B C

40 Ch  A multistep process slow r.d. step 10. A Mechanism for the S N 1 Reaction

41 Ch Free Energy Diagram of S N 1 Reactions intermediate

42 Ch fast

43 Ch Free Energy Diagram of S N 1 Reactions intermediate

44 Ch fast

45 Ch Free Energy Diagram of S N 1 Reactions intermediate

46 Ch k 1 << k 2 and k 3 fast

47 Ch  2 intermediates and 3 transition states (T.S.)  The most important T.S. for S N 1 reactions is T.S. (1) of the rate- determining step (r.d.s.)

48 Ch  Carbocations are trigonal planar  The central carbon atom in a carbocation is electron deficient; it has only six e ⊖ in its valence shell  The p orbital of a carbocation contains no electrons, but it can accept an electron pair when the carbocation undergoes further reaction 11A. The Structure of Carbocations 11. Carbocations sp 2 -sp 3  bond

49 Ch  General order of reactivity (towards S N 1 reaction) ●3 o > 2 o >> 1 o > methyl  The more stable the carbocation formed, the faster the S N 1 reaction 11B. The Relative Stabilities of Carbocations Carbocations

50 Ch  Stability of cations most stable (positive inductive effect)  Resonance stabilization of allylic and benzylic cations

51 Ch :50 chance 12. The Stereochemistry of S N 1 Reactions (1 : 1)

52 Ch  Example: slow r.d.s. (one enantiomer) (carbocation) attack from TOP face attack from BOTTOM face racemic mixture ( 1 : 1 )

53 Ch    Example: slow r.d.s. trigonal planar

54 Ch  The structure of the substrate  The concentration and reactivity of the nucleophile (for S N 2 reactions only)  The effect of the solvent  The nature of the leaving group 13. Factors Affecting the Rates of S N 1 and S N 2 Reactions

55 Ch A. The Effect of the Structure of the Substrate  General order of reactivity (towards S N 2 reaction) ●Methyl > 1 o > 2 o >> 3 o > vinyl or aryl DO NOT undergo S N 2 reactions

56 Ch Relative Rate (towards S N 2) methyl1o1o 2o2o neopentyl3o3o 2   < 1 Most reactive Least reactive  For example:

57 Ch  Compare faster slower

58 Ch extremely slow very slow

59 Ch  Note NO S N 2 reaction on sp 2 or sp carbons sp 2 sp

60 Ch  General order of reactivity (towards S N 1 reaction) ●3 o > 2 o >> 1 o > methyl  The more stable the carbocation formed, the faster the S N 1 reaction Reactivity of the Substrate in S N 1 Reactions

61 Ch  Stability of cations most stable (positive inductive effect)  Allylic halides and benzylic halides also undergo S N 1 reactions at reasonable rates

62 Ch  Resonance stabilization for allylic and benzylic cations

63 Ch  For S N 1 reaction Recall: Rate = k[RX] ●The Nu ⊖ does NOT participate in the r.d.s. ●Rate of S N 1 reactions are NOT affected by either the concentration or the identity of the Nu ⊖ 13B. The Effect of the Concentration & Strength of the Nucleophile & Strength of the Nucleophile

64 Ch  For S N 2 reaction Recall: Rate = k[RX][RX] ●The rate of S N 2 reactions depends on both the concentration and the identity of the attacking Nu ⊖

65 Ch  Identity of the Nu ⊖ ●The relative strength of a Nu ⊖ (its nucleophilicity) is measured in terms of the relative rate of its S N 2 reaction with a given substrate rapid Good Nu ⊖ Very slow Poor Nu ⊖

66 Ch  The relative strength of a Nu ⊖ can be correlated with 3 structural features ●A negatively charged Nu ⊖ is always a more reactive Nu ⊖ than its conjugated acid  e.g. HO ⊖ is a better Nu ⊖ than H 2 O and RO ⊖ is better than ROH ●In a group of Nu ⊖ s in which the nucleophilic atom is the same, nucleophilicities parallel basicities  e.g. for O compounds, RO ⊖ > HO ⊖ >> RCO 2 ⊖ > ROH > H 2 O

67 Ch ●When the nucleophilic atoms are different, then nucleophilicities may not parallel basicities  e.g. in protic solvents HS ⊖, CN ⊖, and I ⊖ are all weaker bases than HO ⊖, yet they are stronger Nu ⊖ s than HO ⊖ HS ⊖ > CN ⊖ > I ⊖ > HO ⊖

68 Ch Solvents Non-polar solvents (e.g. hexane, benzene) Polar solvents Polar protic solvents (e.g. H 2 O, MeOH) Polar aprotic solvents (e.g. DMSO, HMPA)  Classification of solvents 13C. Solvent Effects on S N 2 Reactions: Polar Protic & Aprotic Solvents

69 Ch  S N 2 Reactions in Polar Aprotic Solvents ●The best solvents for S N 2 reactions are  Polar aprotic solvents, which have strong dipoles but do not have OH or NH groups  Examples

70 Ch  Polar aprotic solvents tend to solvate metal cations rather than nucleophilic anions, and this results in “ naked ” anions of the Nu ⊖ and makes the e ⊖ pair of the Nu ⊖ more available

71 Ch SolventRelative Rate MeOH1 DMF10 6  Tremendous acceleration in S N 2 reactions with polar aprotic solvent

72 Ch  S N 2 Reactions in Polar Protic Solvents ●In polar protic solvents, the Nu ⊖ anion is solvated by the surrounding protic solvent which makes the e ⊖ pair of the Nu ⊖ less available and thus less reactive in S N 2 reactions

73 Ch  Halide Nucleophilicity in Protic Solvents ●I ⊖ > Br ⊖ > Cl ⊖ > F ⊖  Thus, I ⊖ is a stronger Nu ⊖ in protic solvents, as its e ⊖ pair is more available to attack the substrate in the S N 2 reaction.

74 Ch  Halide Nucleophilicity in Polar Aprotic Solvents (e.g. in DMSO) ●F ⊖ > Cl ⊖ > Br ⊖ > I ⊖  Polar aprotic solvents do not solvate anions but solvate the cations  The “ naked ” anions act as the Nu ⊖  Since F ⊖ is smaller in size and the charge per surface area is larger than I ⊖, the nucleophilicity of F ⊖ in this environment is greater than I ⊖

75 Ch  Solvent plays an important role in S N 1 reactions but the reasons are different from those in S N 2 reactions  Solvent effects in S N 1 reactions are due largely to stabilization or destabilization of the transition state 13D. Solvent Effects on S N 1 Reactions: The Ionizing Ability of the Solvent The Ionizing Ability of the Solvent

76 Ch  Polar protic solvents stabilize the development of the polar transition state and thus accelerate this rate- determining step (r.d.s.):

77 Ch E. The Nature of the Leaving Group  The better a species can stabilize a negative charge, the better the LG in an S N 2 reaction S N 1 Reaction: S N 2 Reaction:

78 Ch CH 3 O  + CH 3 –X  CH 3 –OCH 3 + X  OH , NH 2 , RO  FF Cl  Br  II TsO  ~ ,00030,00060,000 Relative Rate: <<<<<< Worst X ⊖ Best X ⊖  Note:Normally R–F, R–OH, R–NH 2, R–OR’ do not undergo S N 2 reactions.  Examples of the reactivity of some X ⊖ :

79 Ch  a strong basic anion a poor leaving group weak base ✔ a good leaving group

80 Ch Organic Synthesis: Functional Group Transformation Using S N 2 Reactions

81 Ch

82 Ch  Examples: NaOEt, DMSO NaSMe, DMSO

83 Ch  Examples: ●Need S N 2 reactions to control stereochemistry ●But S N 2 reactions give the inversion of configurations, so how do you get the “retention” of configuration here?? ●Solution: “double inversion”  “retention”

84 Ch (Note: Br ⊖ is a stronger Nu than I ⊖ in polar aprotic solvent.) NaBr DMSO NaCN DMSO (S N 2 with inversion) (S N 2 with inversion)

85 Ch  Vinylic and phenyl halides are generally unreactive in S N 1 or S N 2 reactions 14A. The Unreactivity of Vinylic and Phenyl Halides

86 Ch  Examples

87 Ch  Substitution 15.Elimination Reactions of Alkyl Halides  Elimination

88 Ch  Substitution reaction (S N ) and elimination reaction (E) are processes in competition with each other

89 Ch A. Dehydrohalogenation halide as LG β carbon β hydrogen α carbon α β LG β hydrogen ⊖ O t Bu

90 Ch  Conjugate base of alcohols is often used as the base in dehydrohalogenations 15B. Bases Used in Dehydrohalogenation R−O ⊖ + Na ⊕ + H 2 R−O−H R−O ⊖ + Na ⊕ + H 2 Na NaH

91 Ch  Rate = k[CH 3 CHBrCH 3 ][EtO ⊖ ]  Rate determining step involves both the alkyl halide and the alkoxide anion  A bimolecular reaction 16.The E2 Reaction

92 Ch Mechanism for an E2 Reaction β α EtO ⊖ removes a  proton; C − H breaks; new  bond forms and Br begins to depart Partial bonds in the transition state: C − H and C−Br bonds break, new  C−C bond forms C=C is fully formed and the other products are EtOH and Br ⊖

93 Ch Free Energy Diagram of E2 Reaction G‡G‡ E2 reaction has ONE transition state  Second-order overall  bimolecular Rate = k[CH 3 CHBrCH 3 ][EtO ⊖ ]

94 Ch  E1: Unimolecular elimination 17.The E1 Reaction

95 Ch Mechanism of an E1 Reaction slow r.d.s. α carbon β hydrogen fast

96 Ch Free Energy Diagram of E1 Reaction

97 Ch slow r.d. step Aided by the polar solvent, a chlorine departs with the e⊖ pair that bonded it to the carbon Produces relatively stable 3 o carbocation and a Cl⊖. The ions are solvated (and stabilized) by surrounding H 2 O molecules

98 Ch Free Energy Diagram of E1 Reaction

99 Ch fast H 2 O molecule removes one of the  hydrogens which are acidic due to the adjacent positive charge. An e ⊖ pair moves in to form a double bond between the  and  carbon atoms Produces alkene and hydronium ion

100 Ch How To Determine Whether Substitution or Elimination Is Favoured  All nucleophiles are potential bases and all bases are potential nucleophiles  Substitution reactions are always in competition with elimination reactions  Different factors can affect which type of reaction is favoured

101 Ch E2 (b) (a) SN2SN2 (b) (a) 18A. S N 2 vs. E2

102 Ch  With a strong base, e.g. EtO ⊖ ●Favor S N 2 Primary Substrate

103 Ch  With a strong base, e.g. EtO ⊖ ●Favor E2 Secondary Substrate

104 Ch  With a strong base, e.g. EtO ⊖ ●E2 is highly favored Tertiary Substrate

105 Ch  Unhindered “small” base/Nu ⊖ Base/Nu ⊖ : Small vs. Bulky  Hindered “bulky” base/Nu ⊖

106 Ch Basicity vs. Polarizability

107 Ch Tertiary Halides: S N 1 vs. E1 & E2

108 Ch E2E1SN2SN2SN1SN1 Mostly S N 2 with weak bases; e.g. with CH 3 COO ⊖ Very favorable with weak bases; e.g. with H 2 O; MeOH Hindered bases give mostly alkenes; e.g. with t BuO ⊖ Mostly Very little; Solvolysis possible; e.g. with H 2 O; MeOH Very little Strong bases promote E2; e.g. with RO ⊖, HO ⊖ Strong bases promote E2; e.g. with RO ⊖, HO ⊖ ── ─ Always competes with S N 1 ─ Very fast ── 19.Overall Summary

109 Ch Review Problems H⊖H⊖ Intramolecular S N 2 S N 2 with inversion

110 Ch sp 2 hybridized carbocation Cl ⊖ attacks from top face Cl ⊖ attacks from bottom face S N 1 with racemization

111 Ch  END OF CHAPTER 6 


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