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Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination

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1 Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination
Alkyl Halides Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination

2 Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides
Name halogen as substituent on alkane or cylcoalkane. Learn common names for some of the simple structures. e.g. chloroform, methylene chloride. Note degree of substitution - name as type of C it is bonded to (i.e. 10, 20, 30). Geminal (gem-) dihalide has two halogen atoms bonded to the same carbon. Vicinal (vic-) dihalide has two halogens bonded to adjacent carbons. Do problem 6-1, 6-2 and 6-3 of the text.

3 Example Problems:

4 Uses and General Chracteristics
BOND DIPOLE (): + at C, - at X all reactions based on this. The bond dipole moments increase in the order: C—I < C—Br < C—F < C—Cl Physical properties generally, trends are similar to those seen in alkanes. bp affected by London forces and dipole-dipole attractions. Common uses: solvents, anesthetics, freons (refrigerants), pesticides.

5 Preparation of alkyl & allylic halides
Free radical halogenation of alkanes (Chpt 4) You are expected to know the mechanism by which this transformation takes place.

6 Free radical halogenation of alkenes at allylic position
Preparation of Alkyl Halides Free radical halogenation of alkenes at allylic position need to know resonance structures for intermediate & predict major/minor product See pages of the text. Do problems 6-8 and 6-9.

7 Nucleophilic Substitution (SN)
R—LG + Nuc:  R—Nuc + LG: Substrate Reagent/Nucleophile (Nuc) Leaving Group (LG) Solvent/Reaction Conditions

8 1. Identify electrophilic carbon in substrate
2. Identify nucleophilic electrons in nucleophile 3. Identify leaving group in substrate

9 Then draw product(s) 4. Draw substrate without LG but with bond
5. Add Nuc to bond where LG used to be

10 Factors influencing what products are formed
Substrate/steric effects Strength of nucleophile vs. basicity of nucleophile Stability of leaving group Reaction conditions Polarity of solvent acidic/neutral/basic

11 Substitution Mechanisms
Continuum of possible mechanisms Mechanism determined primarily by substrate steric effects SN2 - methyl, 1º & unhindered 2º SN º, hindered 2º

12 Bimolecular (SN2) Nucleophilic Substitution
concerted reaction; Nuc attacks, LG leaves pentacoordinate carbon in transition state rate depends on conc. of both reactants Me = methyl group; Et = ethyl group

13 Reaction is “stereospecific”
100 % inversion of configuration You should know how to represent this mechanism in an energy diagram!!

14 Factors that Affect SN2 Reaction Rates
Strength of Nucleophile: species with negative charge is a stronger nuc than an analogous neutral species (e.g. -OH > H2O; -NH2 > NH3). Nucleophilicity increases from left to right across the periodic chart (e.g. -OH > -F). Nucleophilicity increased down the periodic table (I- > Br- > Cl- > F-) or (-SeH > -SH > -OH). Solvent: Polar protic solvents (e.g. ethanol, ammonia decrease nucleophilicity. Polar aprotic solvents e.g. (acetonitrile, DMSO, acetone) increase nucleophilicity.

15 Factors that affect SN2 reaction rates
Steric Effects: When bulky groups interfere with a rxn. because of their size, this is called steric hindrance. Steric hindrance affects nucleophilicity, not basicity. (e.g. ethoxide ion is a stronger base than t-butoxide ion). Also, alkyl halide reactivity decreases from methyl to 10 to 20 to 30. In fact, 30 alkyl halides do not react by SN2. Leaving group: The substrate should have a good leaving group. A good leaving group should be electron withdrawing, relatively stable, and polarizable. They are weak bases. Examples are Cl-, Br-, I-, RSO3-, RSO4-, RPO4-, and neutral molecules such as water, alcohols and amines. Strong bases (OH-, RO-, H2N-) are not good leaving groups!

16 Unimolecular (SN1) Nucleophilic Substitution
Two-step reaction LG leaves, then Nuc: attacks Tricoordinate carbocation intermediate Solvolysis (when solvent is also the nucleophile = SN1 reaction Rate depends on substrate conc. only

17 Mechanism of SN1 reaction
You must be able to represent this on an energy diagram!

18 Reaction Not Stereoselective Unless Steric Factors Apply
Racemization - not always exactly 50/50. Carbocation can be attacked from the top or bottom face giving both enantiomers. Steric hindrance gives attack at one side preferentially Longer-lived carbocations give more racemization, shorter-lived give more inversion

19 Factors Influencing SN1 Reaction Rates
Stability of the carbocation* Allylic 3° >> 3°  allylic 2° > 2°  allylic 1° >> 1° > Me Carbocations are stabilized by alkyl groups (through hyperconjugation and the inductive effect) and by resonance. Leaving group stability: the better the leaving group, the faster the reaction. Solvent polarity: the reaction is favored in polar protic solvents. * must have neutral to acidic conditions to form carbocation

20 Rearrangement of Carbocations
Large difference in energy (stability) of 3° vs. 2° C+ H- (hydride) or R- will shift (migrate) to adjacent position to form more stable carbocation. E.g. when neopentyl bromide is boiled in methanol, only rearranged product is formed.

21 Elimination Reactions
May proceed by a unimolecular (E1) or bimolecular (E2) mechanism. In an alkyl halide, when a halide ion leaves with another atom or ion, the reaction is an elimination. If the halide ion leaves with H+, the reaction is called a dehydrohalogenation.

22 Elimination Mechanisms
Mechanism determined primarily by substrate steric effects

23 E1 mechanism

24 E1 & SN1 Competition Always by definition a nucleophile is Lewis Base

25 Carbocations generally always give both products
Relative amounts not easily predictable Always assume formed in approximately equal amounts

26 E2 is Stereospecific anti-coplanar elimination of H and LG

27 Product Distribution in E2
Seytzeff Product, most substituted major with small base, i.e., ethoxide, small LG + major minor R2C=CR2 > R2C=CHR > RHC=CHR > R2C=CH2 > RHC=CH2 Decreasing alkene stability

28 E2 Mechanism Concerted, anti-coplanar,  Stereospecific
strong base & good LG

29 Elimination is stereospecific

30 E1 E2 Comparison of SN1 and SN2 Base strength unimportant
Substrates: reactivity order is 3o > 2o > 1o Solvent: good ionizing solvent required Rate: depends on substrate conc. only Stereochemistry: no particular geometry required for slow step; Saytzeff rule followed Rearrangements: very common Strong bases required Substrates: reactivity order is 3o > 2o > 1o Solvent polarity is not so important Rate: depends on conc. of substrate and base. Stereochemistry: coplanar arrangement required in transition state; Saytzeff rule followed Rearrangements: not possible

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