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Biological and Bioorganic Chemistry. Some useful material

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Presentation on theme: "Biological and Bioorganic Chemistry. Some useful material"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biological and Bioorganic Chemistry

2 Some useful material

3 What shall we do? Introduction to organic and biological chemistry. Classes and nomenclature of organic compounds. Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. S R and Ad E reactions. Feb 14 Aromatic hydrocarbons. Orientation in the aromatic ring. Halogen derivatives of hydrocarbons. S N reacions. Alcohols, ethers. Polyhydric alcohols. Feb 21 Carbonyl compounds – aldehydes and ketones. Carbohydrates. Feb 28 Carboxylic acids and their derivatives: amides, nitriles, anhydrides. Esters, fats. Mar 7 Amines, aminoacids, peptides. Heterocyclic compounds and their biological activity. Mar 14

4 Aromatic hydrocarbons

5 Structure of the benzene ring

6 Names of main benzene derivatives

7 Naming benzene derivatives

8 Synthesis of aromatic compounds aromatization alkynes cycloaddition Bergman reaction

9 Reactions of benzene – S E reactions

10 Industry of benzene derivatives

11 Orientation in the benzene ring


13 Halogen derivatives

14 Naming halogen derivatives

15 Isomerism of the halogen derivatives


17 Reactions of halogen derivatives



20 Alcohols

21 Structure of alcohols

22 Naming alcohols Classification of alcohols: primary secondary tertiary Origin: from arabic الكحل (al-kuhl)

23 Isomerism of alkenes + INTERCLASS ISOMERISM alcohols are isomeric to the corresponding ethers

24 Synthesis and reactions of alcohols HI KOH/H 2 O OH - H+H+ H+H+ [O] [H] [O] H 2 SO 4 / t o H2OH2O

25 Ethers

26 Physiological role of alcohols Ethanol in alcoholic beverages has been consumed by humans since prehistoric times. The consumption of large doses of ethanol causes drunkenness (intoxication). Depending upon the dose and the regularity of its consumption, ethanol can cause acute respiratory failure or death. Because ethanol impairs judgment in humans, it can be a catalyst for reckless or irresponsible behavior. The LD 50 of ethanol for rats is 10.3 g/kg. Other alcohols are substantially more poisonous than ethanol, partly because they take much longer to be metabolized and partly because their metabolism produces substances that are even more toxic. Methanol (wood alcohol), for instance, is oxidized to formaldehyde and then to the poisonous formic acid in the liver; accumulation of formic acid can lead to blindness or death.

27 Polyhydric alcohols - names xylitol lactitol

28 Polyhydric alcohols - synthesis Similar procedure can be also performed using KMnO 4.

29 Polycondensation - H 2 O polyethylene glycol

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