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1 Thermal Remediation Services, Inc. Electrical Resistance Heating for In-Situ Remediation of Soil & Groundwater December 10, 2002 Greg Beyke (770) 794-1168.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Thermal Remediation Services, Inc. Electrical Resistance Heating for In-Situ Remediation of Soil & Groundwater December 10, 2002 Greg Beyke (770) 794-1168."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Thermal Remediation Services, Inc. Electrical Resistance Heating for In-Situ Remediation of Soil & Groundwater December 10, 2002 Greg Beyke (770) Electrical Resistance Heating for In-Situ Remediation of Soil & Groundwater December 10, 2002 Greg Beyke (770)

2 SOLVENT SAND CLAY BEDROCK WATER TABLE GROUNDWATER FLOW 2

3 PCU 3

4 GAC Filter 4

5 5 Why Electrical Resistance Heating?  Heating is uniform with no bypassed regions  Heating is rapid – months vs. years  Steam is produced in-situ  Preferentially heats tight soil lenses and DNAPL hot spots  Cost effective: most commercial, full- scale sites range from $40-$100 per yds 3  Heating is uniform with no bypassed regions  Heating is rapid – months vs. years  Steam is produced in-situ  Preferentially heats tight soil lenses and DNAPL hot spots  Cost effective: most commercial, full- scale sites range from $40-$100 per yds 3

6 6 Applications Low permeability & heterogeneous lithologies DNAPL & LNAPL cleanups by aquifer and smear zone heating Heavy hydrocarbon mobilization Degradation enhancement (hydrolysis, bio) Remediation underneath operating facilities, in the presence of buried utilities and hazardous waste drums Low permeability & heterogeneous lithologies DNAPL & LNAPL cleanups by aquifer and smear zone heating Heavy hydrocarbon mobilization Degradation enhancement (hydrolysis, bio) Remediation underneath operating facilities, in the presence of buried utilities and hazardous waste drums

7 7 In-Situ Steam Generation HEATED ZONE ELECTRODE NEUTRAL 2. Steam generation is uniform through the heated zone 1. Soil grains act as electrical resistors 150 V to 600 V <15 V 3. Discrete intervals can be heated

8 8 Surface Equipment Steam Condenser 500 kW PCU Operating Electrode Photo Courtesy of Brown and Caldwell

9 9 Vapor Recovery System ERH Power Control Unit Water Storage Tank Or Sewer Vacuum Pump Carbon or Catox Condenser T T >99% of the contaminant mass remains in the vapor state

10 10 ERH Equipment Staging Baker Tank 500 kW PCU Steam Condenser GAC Vessels Vacuum Blower CPVC pipe from wells

11 11 Full-Scale DNAPL Cleanup the Problem* DNAPL (TCE & TCA) covering about 1 acre of an industrial site ENSR performed remediation for about 5 years and removed 30,000 pounds of TCE & TCA DNAPL remained in four areas, mostly under a large warehouse building Goal: Reach Tier III RBCA Cleanup Levels over entire site DNAPL (TCE & TCA) covering about 1 acre of an industrial site ENSR performed remediation for about 5 years and removed 30,000 pounds of TCE & TCA DNAPL remained in four areas, mostly under a large warehouse building Goal: Reach Tier III RBCA Cleanup Levels over entire site *Data from the 1999 EPA Cost and Performance Report

12 12 Full-Scale DNAPL Cleanup Site Map* 10’ deep waste drain Cast iron roof drain TCE and TCA tanks Storm drain Power Control Unit Semiconductor Building DNAPL 107 electrodes *Data from 1999 EPA Cost and Performance Report

13 13 ERH Remediation Beneath a Building Electrode Vapor Recovery Pipe Limited overhead access Photo Courtesy of Brown and Caldwell

14 14 Full-Scale DNAPL Cleanup Subsurface Cross-Section Building Slab Fill 7’ 20’ Heated Zone Electrode Sandy Silt Silty Clay DNAPL SVE Well Clay Aquitard SVE Well DNAPL Pools Electrode 18’

15 15 Full-Scale DNAPL Cleanup Operations & Results* Operations Heating (107 electrodes) started June 4, 1998 Aquifer reached boiling in 60 days Maintained above the boiling point of TCE (73ºC) for the next 3 months Results Tier III levels by late November 1998; the site is now closed >15,000 pounds of VOCs removed Operations Heating (107 electrodes) started June 4, 1998 Aquifer reached boiling in 60 days Maintained above the boiling point of TCE (73ºC) for the next 3 months Results Tier III levels by late November 1998; the site is now closed >15,000 pounds of VOCs removed *Data from 1999 EPA Cost and Performance Report

16 16 Average Groundwater Concentrations Seven Most Contaminated Wells* 98.3% 99.9% 98.9% October 1998 *Data from 1999 EPA Cost and Performance Report

17 17 Do Groundwater Concentrations Rebound after ERH Remediation? Average Additional Decrease = 23% two wells increased seven wells decreased Data from ENSR report

18 18 Polishing Mechanisms Hydrolysis of Halogenated Alkanes u Compounds such as TCA have a hydrolysis half-life of less than one day at steam temperatures. Iron Reductive Dehalogenation u Steel shot used as electrode backfill provides an iron source for reductive dehalogenation (iron filing wall) Temperature Accelerates Reactions u The above reaction rates are increased by factor of thousands at 100°C (Arrhenius Equation) Bioremediation by Thermophiles u Thermophilic bacteria are the most effective solvent dehalogenators and prefer 40-70°C Hydrolysis of Halogenated Alkanes u Compounds such as TCA have a hydrolysis half-life of less than one day at steam temperatures. Iron Reductive Dehalogenation u Steel shot used as electrode backfill provides an iron source for reductive dehalogenation (iron filing wall) Temperature Accelerates Reactions u The above reaction rates are increased by factor of thousands at 100°C (Arrhenius Equation) Bioremediation by Thermophiles u Thermophilic bacteria are the most effective solvent dehalogenators and prefer 40-70°C

19 19 Full Scale DNAPL Cleanup Cost & Performance Data* Effectiveness u Total operations took 18 weeks, five days u Treated approximately 30,000 cubic yards u Since completing, average groundwater VOC concentrations have continued to decrease Costs u Total project costs were $32/cubic yard u The total includes electrical costs of $6.50/cubic yard u Vapor treatment was not required. If vapor treatment had been required, the cost would have been about $41 per cubic yard. Effectiveness u Total operations took 18 weeks, five days u Treated approximately 30,000 cubic yards u Since completing, average groundwater VOC concentrations have continued to decrease Costs u Total project costs were $32/cubic yard u The total includes electrical costs of $6.50/cubic yard u Vapor treatment was not required. If vapor treatment had been required, the cost would have been about $41 per cubic yard. *Data from the 1999 EPA Cost and Performance Report

20 20 TCE DNAPL Remediation Air Force Plant Four Fort Worth, Texas Photo Courtesy of URS

21 21 ERH Remediation Beneath Air Force Plant Four SVE piping electrical cable electrode SVE well Photo Courtesy of URS

22 22 Lowry Landfill System Layout South Waste Pit 2000 kW PCU Thermal Oxidizers Cables to the Electrode Field Electrode Field


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