Presentation on theme: "And the contamination of Industrial Wasteland Adam Stanley Jonathan Beeson."— Presentation transcript:
And the contamination of Industrial Wasteland Adam Stanley Jonathan Beeson
Contamination History Located in St Denis, Paris, France. Large flat industrial area served by a Canal. Previously provided utilities for the city during 19 th and 20 th centuries. Majority of industries left during the 1970’s - 80’s leaving a contaminated wasteland. As a result various contaminants remained in the soil.
Contamination History The stadium itself is built on the site of a former gas works built in 1882. Plant produced Coal Gas (Town/ Illumination Gas) used for lighting and heating throughout Paris. Closed in the 1970’s as natural gas became the preferred option.
Process Coal gas is produced by destructively distilling coal Coal Gas consists of: Hydrogen (H) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Methane (CH 4 ) Volatile Hydrocarbons (C n H m ) Also contains impurities: Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Nitrogen (N)
By-products By-products of producing coal gas: Coke: Coal Tar: Sulphur: Ammonia: Each have industrial uses, thus stored on site. Environmentally hazardous and damaging. Consequently the ground was left polluted. Combustible at high temperatures Group 1 carcinogenic Can form Sulphur Dioxide and Sulphuric Acid Hazardous to humans and aquatic animals
Scale of Project Over 50,000 m 3 of soil had to be treated. Contaminant concentrations of up to 50,000 ppm. A strict construction deadline in time for the summer world cup: 31 month timeframe (full construction) The area has a complex groundwater system, flowing in multiple directions transferring contaminants.
Remedial Measures: Phase 1 Soil/ Sediment Washing: Removes the heavily polluted soil by ‘scrubbing’ Often used in conjunction with other remedial measures Performed on site (In-situ) Long but cheap process
Remedial Measures: Phase 1 Biological Treatment In-situ: Cheap but often timely Uses naturally occurring microorganisms to biologically degrade contaminants Barrier: Protective layer prevents pollutants from rising above the soil surface Aeration: In-situ process of injecting/ forcing air into the soil to degrade contaminants into CO 2 and water
Remedial Measures: Phase 2 Following the first remedial works, hydrocarbons were found during construction at a depth greater than 5m. This presented two risks: Emanation of odours Risk of subsurface explosions Remediation of this phase needed to be quick as construction had begun: Groundwater and gases pumped from soil Groundwater treated on site Gases incinerated before release to atmosphere
Alternative Remedial Measures Incineration of soil: Not economically viable due to high volumes of soil needing treatment. Solidification: Binds the contaminant in place prevent re-entry to environment. Soil Vapour Extraction: Use of pipes to collect hazardous gasses. Redistribution
Conclusions The soil was successfully treated and all threats were mitigated / removed over a 2 year period. The 80,000 capacity stadium was built in time for the French 1998 Football World Cup. Now a 270-day a year facility, the stadium is a symbol for the regeneration of Saint Denis.