Presentation on theme: "BELLRINGER 1. Write out the word for each chemical formula"— Presentation transcript:
1BELLRINGER 1. Write out the word for each chemical formula NO3NH3NO2N22. Why is the nitrogen cycle important to aquaponics?
2Aquatic Nitrogen Cycle The most important concept for Aquaponics!
3Why is the aquatic nitrogen cycle important to aquaponics? Arguably, the nitrogen cycle is the most important concept to be understood about aquaponics because, without it, there is no aquaponics.The fish eat food and excrete organic waste matter in the form of urea, uric acid arising from the digestion of their food. They also emit ammonia as part of the gaseous exchange that occurs through respiration.The ammonia compounds are toxic to fish and plants cannot absorb ammonia.What would happen if the system was left this way?
4Why is the aquatic nitrogen cycle important to aquaponics? What allows the fish and plants to survive and thrive?When ammonia levels in the fish tank reach a certain level, bacteria (Nitrosomonas) begin to colonize the system.As the bacteria build up, the ammonia is converted to nitrite. As the ammonia levels dip, the nitrite levels increase.The nitrites (like ammonia) are toxic to fish. Draw diagram on board as you go through this slide.
5Why is the aquatic nitrogen cycle important to aquaponics? When the nitrite levels reach a certain point, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (nitrospira) colonize the system and convert the nitrites to nitrates.....which become plant food.The plants take up the nitrates (and other compounds) and as they grow and are harvested, nitrogen is removed from the system.Eventually, the system reaches the point where the various aspects of the nitrogen cycle happen simultaneously. As long as the fish are fed (and things remain in balance), the cycle continues.
6Why do plants need Nitrogen? Nitrogen is one of the main elements in protein. Nitrogen is also a component of nucleic acid, DNA, RNA, genes, chromosomes, enzymes, chlorophyll, secondary metabolites (alkaloids), and amino acids.Protein is essential for all living organisms, and is required for growth and development.Nitrogen accounts for about 1 to 6 % of plant dry matter, depending on the species and is often the limiting factor in plant growth.
7Composition of Atmosphere Nitrogen is the major gas in the atmosphere.But it is often the limiting factor in plant growthWhy would nitrogen be limiting if it makes up most of the atmosphere?
8Nitrogen CycleUnlike carbon or oxygen, nitrogen is not very available to life.It’s conversion to a useable form requires biological activityCyclic conversions from one form to another are mainly mediated by bacteria.
9Cycling of NitrogenFive processes participate in the cycling of nitrogen through the biosphere:1) Nitrogen fixation2) Decay3) Nitrification4) Denitrification5)DissimilationMicroorganisms play major roles in these processes
10Process 1: Fixation N2 NH3 Nitrogen fixation refers to the conversion of nitrogen gas to either NH3 or NH4 by bacteria.Terrestrial systems: soil bacteria in root nodules of legumes.Aquatic systems: blue green algae.
11Process 2: Nitrification NH3 NO2 NO3The term nitrification refers to the conversion of ammonium or ammonia to nitrateResponsible: nitrifying bacteria known as chemoautotrophs.These bacteria gain energy by converting NH3 or NH4 to NO2 or NO3Plants take up NO3 to make proteinswhile using CO2 as a source of carbon to synthesize organic compounds.
12Process 3: Decay Proteins NH3 Proteins pass through food webs just as carbohydrates do.At each trophic level, organic nitrogen compounds are returned to the environment in waste excretions.Final beneficiaries of these materials are microorganisms of decay.They breakdown the molecules in excretions and dead organisms into ammonia (NH3).
13Process 4: Denitrification NO3 N2By this process, NO3 in soil or water is converted into N2 gas.This must occur under anaerobic conditions (anaerobic respiration).Again, mediated by bacteria.Should not happen in an aquaponics system!
14Process 5: Dissimilation NO3 NO2 NH3By this process, nitrates in soil or water is converted back to nitrites and ammoniaThis must occur under anaerobic conditions.Again, mediated by bacteria.Should not happen in an aquaponics system!
15Simplified diagram of the nitrogen cycle that is established in an aquatic system
16Aquatic Nitrogen Cycling Conversion of ammonia (NH3) to nitrate (NO3-) is via chemoautotrophic bacteria.First step (NH3 NO2) by Nitrosomonas sp.second step(NO2 NO3) by Nitrospira sp.Both steps/reactions use NH4+ and NO2- as an energy source, CO2 as a carbon source.This is a non-photosynthetic type of growth.
17Aquatic Nitrogen Cycling Reaction runs best at pH 7-8 and 25-30oC.However; under low Dissolved Oxygen, it runs in reverse.NO3- is converted to NO2= and other forms.Can go all the way backwards to NH3.
18Ammonia ToxicityFish excrete ammonia (NH4). When you’re keeping fish at home or in an aquaponics lab it needs to be managed as it is very toxic to the fish. Decomposing food also creates ammonia, so don’t overfeed fish!Some of the effects of excessive ammonia include:Extensive damage to tissues, especially the gills and kidneyImpaired growthDecreased resistance to diseaseDeathKeep below 1 ppmIn a lake or ocean it’s all good because the vast volume of water dilutes this ammonia.
19Nitrite ToxicityNow, nitrite is much less poisonous to the fish than ammonia.But it’s by not good either. It stops the fish from taking up oxygen.Keep below 5 ppm