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1850’s: Sectional Conflict Prelude to the Civil War.

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Presentation on theme: "1850’s: Sectional Conflict Prelude to the Civil War."— Presentation transcript:

1 1850’s: Sectional Conflict Prelude to the Civil War

2 America in the 1850’s Agriculture still mainstay of economy Urban population increased from 6% to 20% Rural population increased from 5 million to 25 million (80% of population) Growth of northwestern states Population of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin & Iowa increased from 500,000 to 5 million, Free labor ideology–individualism & egalitarianism 4 million immigrants enter U.S., million Germans 1.7 million Irish

3 The Election of 1848 Whigs elect war hero Zachary Taylor without a platform Conscience Whigs join anti- slavery Democrats & Liberty Party to form new Free Soil Party Nominated Van Buren Received 10% of vote Democrats nominated Lewis Cass & criticized politicization of slavery Copyright 2000, Bedford/St. Martin’s

4 The Debate over California California Gold Rush ( ) brings over 80,000 white Americans to California Organized free state government, backed by Taylor Clay offered compromise Omnibus Bill William Seward denounced compromise & spoke of obeying “higher law” Calhoun warned South would leave union if right to own slaves not guaranteed Taylor died in July 1850, making Millard Fillmore president Stephen Douglas broke up Omnibus Bill & engineered Compromise of 1850

5 The Compromise of 1850 California admitted as a free state New Mexico territory organized on basis of popular sovereignty; Texas reduced to present size & compensated Utah territory organized on basis of popular sovereignty Fugitive Slave Act made federal government responsible for catching & returning escaped slaves Slave trade (but not slavery) abolished in the District of Columbia

6 Map: Compromise of 1850

7 Northern Response to the Compromise of 1850

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9 Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1851)

10 The Election of 1852 Franklin Pierce won back Van Buren Democrats Defeated Gen. Winfield Scott (Virginia Whig) 50.8% % in popular vote in electoral vote John Hale (Free Soil candidate) polled 4.9% Franklin PierceWinfield Scott

11 The End of the Missouri Compromise Gadsden Purchase (1853) meant to secure southern route for transcontinental railroad Arranged by James Gadsden & Secretary of War Jefferson Davis U.S. paid $10 million to Mexico for over 45,000 acres south of the Gila River Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) meant to secure northern route Stephen Douglas wrote bill organizing remaining Louisiana Purchase territory into 2 territories on basis of popular sovereignty Explicitly repealed Missouri Compromise

12 Rounding Out the Lower 48 Copyright 2000, Bedford/St. Martin’s Press

13 The Kansas-Nebraska Act

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15  Northern Whigs.  Northern Democrats.  Free-Soilers.  Know-Nothings.  Other miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.  Northern Whigs.  Northern Democrats.  Free-Soilers.  Know-Nothings.  Other miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Birth of the Republican Party

16 Mid-term Election of 1854 Horace Greeley printed in June 1854: "We should not care much whether those thus united (against slavery) were designated 'Whig,' 'Free Democrat' or something else; though we think some simple name like 'Republican' would more fitly designate those who had united to restore the Union to its true mission of champion and promulgator of Liberty rather than propagandist of slavery.“

17 The “Know-Nothings” [The American Party]  Nativists.  Anti-Catholics.  Anti-immigrants.  Nativists.  Anti-Catholics.  Anti-immigrants  Secret Order of the Star-Spangled Banner created in NYC.

18 PartyTotal seats (change) Seat percentage Democratic Party % American Party % Whig Party % Republican Party % Totals %

19 Kansas Territory 1855: Kansas Ready for Territory Elections 2,905 eligible voters 6,307 people voted Two governments Lecompton - Slave Topeka - Free

20 Bleeding Kansas Abolitionist & proslavery forces race to populate Kansas & write state constitution Both sides stage terrorist attacks Jayhawks led by John Brown responsible for Pottawatomie Massacre 157 violent deaths, but only 38 definitely related to slavery conflict John Brown

21 Application for Statehood Topeka Constitution Lecompton Constitution With slavery, or without Sent to Washington Buchanan vs. Douglas Kansas a free state in 1961

22 Brooks Beats Sumner Congressman Preston Brooks savagely beat Senator Charles Sumner in the Senate (May 22, 1856)

23 The Election of 1856 Democrats nominate Ambassador James Buchanan Southern Whigs & Know- Nothings form American Party – nominate Fillmore Conscience Whigs, Antislavery Democrats & Free Soilers form new Republican Party – nominate Fremont James BuchananJohn C. Fremont

24 √ James Buchanan John C. Frémont Millard Fillmore Democrat Republican Whig

25 1856 Election Results

26 Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) Dred Scott was slave of Army doctor – had lived in free state & territory Chief Justice Roger Taney: African Americans cannot be citizens, state laws to the contrary Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional Any attempt to limit slavery in territories (even by territorial legislature) unconstitutional Dred Scott

27 Crash of 1857 Causes? Response? Effects?

28 The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Buchanan backed fraudulent pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution (1858) Douglas opposed – declared “Freeport Doctrine” in debates with Lincoln Dred Scott ruling must be respected Territories could still bar slavery by failing to pass necessary laws Lincoln pointed out inherent contradiction

29 John Brown’s Body Brown was Connecticut native with apocalyptic vision Led raid on federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, VA to start slave rebellion Convicted of treason against Commonwealth of Virginia & executed Became martyr to abolitionists The arraignment of John Brown Brown’s Last Moments, by Thomas Hovdenden (1884)

30 1860 Presidential Election √ Abraham Lincoln Republican John Bell Constitutional Union Stephen A. Douglas Northern Democrat John C. Breckinridge Southern Democrat

31 Republican Party Platform in 1860 ßNon-extension of slavery [for the Free- Soilers]. ßProtective tariff [for the No. Industrialists]. ßNo abridgment of rights for immigrants [a disappointment for the “Know-Nothings”]. ßGovernment aid to build a Pacific RR [for the Northwest]. ßInternal improvements [for the West] at federal expense. ßFree homesteads for the public domain [for farmers]. ßNon-extension of slavery [for the Free- Soilers]. ßProtective tariff [for the No. Industrialists]. ßNo abridgment of rights for immigrants [a disappointment for the “Know-Nothings”]. ßGovernment aid to build a Pacific RR [for the Northwest]. ßInternal improvements [for the West] at federal expense. ßFree homesteads for the public domain [for farmers].

32 1860 Election: 3 “Outs” & 1 ”Run!”

33 1860 Election: A Nation Coming Apart?!

34 1860 Election Results 1860 Election Results

35 Crittenden Compromise: A Last Ditch Appeal to Sanity Senator John J. Crittenden (Know-Nothing-KY)

36 Secession!: SC Dec. 20, 1860

37 Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861


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