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1850’s: Sectional Conflict Prelude to the Civil War.

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Presentation on theme: "1850’s: Sectional Conflict Prelude to the Civil War."— Presentation transcript:

1 1850’s: Sectional Conflict Prelude to the Civil War

2 America in the 1850’s Agriculture still mainstay of economy Urban population increased from 6% to 20% Rural population increased from 5 million to 25 million (80% of population) Growth of northwestern states changes politics Population of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin & Iowa increased from 500,000 to 5 million, 1830-1860 Meant free states had majority in Electoral College Free labor ideology–individualism & egalitarianism 4 million immigrants enter U.S., 1840-1860 1.4 million Germans 1.7 million Irish

3 The Election of 1848 Whigs elect war hero Zachary Taylor without a platform Conscience Whigs join anti- slavery Democrats & Liberty Party to form new Free Soil Party Nominated Van Buren Received 10% of vote Democrats nominated Lewis Cass & criticized politicization of slavery Copyright 2000, Bedford/St. Martin’s

4 Sutter’s Mill, California Modern re-creation of the sawmill John Sutter James Marshall

5 The Debate over California California Gold Rush (1848-49) brings over 80,000 white Americans to California Organized free state government, backed by Taylor Clay offered compromise Omnibus Bill William Seward denounced compromise & spoke of obeying “higher law” Calhoun warned South would leave union if right to own slaves not guaranteed Taylor died in July 1850, making Millard Fillmore president Stephen Douglas broke up Omnibus Bill & engineered Compromise of 1850

6 The Compromise of 1850 California admitted as a free state New Mexico territory organized on basis of popular sovereignty; Texas reduced to present size & compensated Utah territory organized on basis of popular sovereignty Fugitive Slave Act made federal government responsible for catching & returning escaped slaves Slave trade (but not slavery) abolished in the District of Columbia

7 Map: Compromise of 1850

8 Northern Response to the Compromise of 1850

9 Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1851)

10 The Election of 1852 Franklin Pierce won back Van Buren Democrats Defeated Gen. Winfield Scott (Virginia Whig) 50.8% - 43.9% in popular vote 254-42 in electoral vote John Hale (Free Soil candidate) polled 4.9% Franklin PierceWinfield Scott

11 The End of the Missouri Compromise Gadsden Purchase (1853) meant to secure southern route for transcontinental railroad Arranged by James Gadsden & Secretary of War Jefferson Davis U.S. paid $10 million to Mexico for over 45,000 acres south of the Gila River Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) meant to secure northern route Stephen Douglas wrote bill organizing remaining Louisiana Purchase territory into 2 territories on basis of popular sovereignty Explicitly repealed Missouri Compromise

12 Rounding Out the Lower 48 Copyright 2000, Bedford/St. Martin’s Press

13 The Kansas-Nebraska Act

14 Bleeding Kansas Abolitionist & proslavery forces race to populate Kansas & write state constitution Both sides stage terrorist attacks Jayhawks led by John Brown responsible for Pottawatomie Massacre 157 violent deaths, but only 38 definitely related to slavery conflict Congressman Preston Brooks savagely beat Senator Charles Sumner in the Senate (May 22, 1856) John Brown

15 Brooks Beats Sumner

16 The Election of 1856 Democrats nominate Ambassador James Buchanan Southern Whigs & Know- Nothings form American Party – nominate Fillmore Conscience Whigs, Antislavery Democrats & Free Soilers form new Republican Party – nominate Fremont James BuchananJohn C. Fremont

17 Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) Dred Scott was slave of Army doctor had lived in free state & territory sued for freedom Chief Justice Roger Taney ruled: Scott had no standing to bring suit African Americans are not citizens & have no rights Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional Any attempt to limit slavery in territories (even by territorial legislature) unconstitutional Dred Scott Roger Taney

18 The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Buchanan backed fraudulent pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution (1858) Douglas opposed – declared “Freeport Doctrine” in debates with Lincoln Dred Scott ruling must be respected Territories could still bar slavery by failing to pass necessary laws Lincoln pointed out inherent contradiction

19 John Brown’s Body Brown was Connecticut native with apocalyptic vision Led raid on federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, VA to start slave rebellion Convicted of treason against Commonwealth of Virginia & executed Became martyr to abolitionists The arraignment of John Brown Brown’s Last Moments, by Thomas Hovdenden (1884)

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