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UNITED STATES DOMESTIC POLICIES (1945-2000) Unit VIIB AP U.S. History.

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Presentation on theme: "UNITED STATES DOMESTIC POLICIES (1945-2000) Unit VIIB AP U.S. History."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNITED STATES DOMESTIC POLICIES ( ) Unit VIIB AP U.S. History

2 Fundamental Question  Compare and contrast the administrations of Democratic presidents and Republican presidents regarding political and economical policies.

3 Harry Truman (D) ( )  Postwar Economic Issues  To avoid unemployment, eliminated price controls leading to inflation and strikes  Employment Act of 1946  Council of Economic Advisers  Mid-Term Election of 1946  Led to Republican majorities in Congress  “Do Nothing Congress”  Taft-Hartley Act (1947)  Prohibited closed shops, political contributions, sympathy strikes  Presidential Succession Act of 1947  22nd Amendment (1951)  Two-term limits for President  Civil Rights  Committee on Civil Rights (1946)  Executive Order 9981 (1948)  Desegregated the federal government and military

4 Election of 1948  Democrats  Harry Truman  Progressive Party  Henry Wallace  States’ Rights Party (Dixiecrats)  Strom Thurmond  Republicans  Thomas Dewey

5 Truman’s Fair Deal  A continuation of New Deal- style social welfare programs  Successful Policies:  Expansion of Social Security  Increased minimum wage 40 cents to 75 cents  Housing Act of 1949  Urban projects and public housing  Failures:  Prevention by Republican and Southern Democrat coalition  National healthcare insurance  Limited civil rights legislation

6 Election of 1952  Republicans  Dwight D. Eisenhower  I Like Ike I Like Ike I Like Ike  Richard Nixon as VP  Checkers speech Checkers speech Checkers speech  Democrats  Adlai Stevenson

7 Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) ( ) Modern Republicanism  Philosophy of Dynamic Conservatism  Balanced budgets  Federal support for business  Reduce federal powers and influence to states/locals  Progressive republicans  Effects  Increased appropriations to Defense  Automation  Middle Class expansion  Per-capita increases, low inflation, rising GDP  Major Policies  Soil-Bank Program (1956)  Interstate Highway System (1956)  National Defense Education Act (1958)  Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (1953)  Civil Rights Events  Brown v. Board of Education (1954)  Rosa Parks and Montgomery Bus Boycott ( )  Little Rock Nine (1957)

8 Interstate Highway System

9 Election of 1956   Republicans   Dwight D. Eisenhower   Democrats   Adlai Stevenson   Television   Became the dominant medium   Housewife commercials

10 Election of 1960   Republicans   Richard Nixon   Democrats   John F. Kennedy   Massachusetts   Catholic   Balanced ticket with Lyndon Johnson (D- TX)   Debates   Radio - Nixon   Television - Kennedy

11 John F. Kennedy (D) ( )  New Frontier  Fiscal conservatism  Expansion of social welfare  Clean Air Act (1963)  Attorney General Robert Kennedy and Civil Rights  “Ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country.” “Ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country.” “Ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country.”  23rd Amendment (1961)  Electoral votes for D.C.

12 Kennedy’s Assassination  Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963  Warren Commission  Investigations and hearings ruled Lee Harvey Oswald as lone assassin  Conspiracy theories led to doubt of federal government  Lyndon B. Johnson assumes office JFK moments before his assassination in Dallas LBJ takes oath of office on Air Force One Lee Harvey Oswald shot by Jack Ruby

13 Lyndon B. Johnson (D) ( )   Great Society   Civil Rights Era   24th Amendment (1964)   Poll taxes unconstitutional   25th Amendment (1967)   Presidential succession   Vietnam

14 Election of 1964   Democrats   Lyndon B. Johnson   Daisy Ad Daisy Ad   Republicans   Barry Goldwater   Criticized welfare state policies

15 Lyndon B. Johnson (D) ( ) Great Society  War on Poverty  Office of Economic Opportunity  Food Stamps  Community Action  Job Corps  Civil Rights Legislation  Civil Rights Act of 1964  Voting Rights Act of 1965  Immigration  Immigration Act of 1965  Housing  Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)  Education  Elementary and Secondary Education Act  Head Start  Health Care  Medicare  Health services for elderly  Medicaid  Health services for low-income families  Department of Transportation  National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act  Safety belts, redesigns for protection, drunk drivers  Environmental Protection  Wilderness Act  Endangered Species Act  Cultural Promotion  National Historic Preservation  National Endowment for the Arts AND the Humanities  Public broadcasting (PBS) and public radio (NPR)  Consumer Protection  Fair Packaging and Labeling Act  Fiscal Policies  $10 Billion Tax Cuts  Consumer spending rose 45%

16 The Warren Court ( )   Equality   Brown v. Board of Education (1954)   Baker v. Carr (1962)   Criminal Justice   Mapp v. Ohio (1961)   Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)   Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)   Miranda v. Arizona (1966)   First Amendment   Engel v. Vitale (1962)   Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969)   Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)   New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)   Privacy   Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)

17 Election of 1968   Democrats   Lyndon Johnson rescinded nomination due to Vietnam   Robert Kennedy assassination   National Convention Riots in Chicago   Hubert Humphrey   Republicans   Richard Nixon   Peace and Honor   Law and Order   American Independent   George Wallace

18 Richard Nixon (R) ( )  Political Policy  Silent Majority Silent Majority Silent Majority  WWII veterans, Midwest, South, blue collar, suburbia, rural America  Southern Strategy  Appeal to conservative Solid South  Busing and Desegregation  New Federalism/Competitive Federalism  Revenue sharing and block grants  Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)  War on Drugs  Economy  1973 Oil Crisis and Stagflation  “I am now a Keynesian in economics.”  Spending cuts to deficit spending  90-day price and wage controls  Devalued dollar off gold standard  Conservation  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)  Clean Air Act of 1970  26th Amendment (1971)  Right to vote at 18 years old

19 Election of 1972   Republicans   Richard Nixon   Democrats   George McGovern

20 Watergate  Committee to Re-Elect the President (CREEP)  G. Gordon Liddy  Break-In at Democratic National Headquarters at Watergate Hotel (June 1972)  Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein - Washington Post  Deepthroat - Mark Felt  Saturday Night Massacre (October 20, 1973)  Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox  “I’m not a crook.” “I’m not a crook.” “I’m not a crook.”  Nixon Tapes  United States v. Nixon (1974)  Resignation (August 9, 1974) Resignation (August 9, 1974) Resignation (August 9, 1974)  In lieu of impeachment articles

21 Gerald Ford (R) ( )  Assumed office after Nixon’s resignation  Pardons Nixon to end “national nightmare”  Economy  Stagflation  WIN (Whip Inflation Now)  Inflation soared despite call for voluntarism by businesses and consumers  Necessitated stimulus plan from Congressional Democrats

22 Election of 1976   Republicans   Gerald Ford   Ronald Reagan had threatened nomination   Democrats   Jimmy Carter   Washington outsider   Georgia governor

23 Jimmy Carter (D) ( )  Amnesty to Vietnam draft dodgers  Economy  1979 Energy Crisis  Iranian Revolution  Three Mile Island (1979)  Stagflation continued  “Malaise Speech” “Malaise Speech” “Malaise Speech”  Crisis of Confidence  Dependency on oil and non- renewable fuels will affect the future  Federal Reserve Chairman Paul Volcker  Raised interest rates to highest levels  Resulted in higher inflation and lower GDP in the short-run  In the long-run, the economy recovered but after Carter’s administration

24 Conservative Resurgence  Reaction to counterculture and liberalism of 1960s and 1970s  Personalities  William F. Buckley  Barry Goldwater  Milton Friedman  Ronald Reagan  Demographics  Blue-collar workers  Yuppies and Corporates  Fundamentalists  Rural, suburbs/commuter towns  Southern Democrats shifted Republican  Midwest more solidly Republican  Moral Majority and Televangelists  Jerry Falwell  Pat Robertson

25 Election of 1980   Democrats   Jimmy Carter   Republicans   Ronald Reagan   Campaign   Debate   “There you go again.” “There you go again.”   “Are you better now than you were four years ago?” “Are you better now than you were four years ago?”

26 Ronald Reagan (R) ( ) Reagan Revolution  “Reaganomics” - Supply-Side Economics  Tax Cuts  Economic Recovery Tax Act (1981)  Tax Reform Act of 1986  Spending cuts on domestic and social welfare programs  Massive military expenditures  Deregulation - New Federalism  Limited regulation of businesses  Opened up federal conservation lands for resources and development  PATCO Strike (1981)  Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986)

27 Election of 1984   Republicans   Ronald Reagan   Democrats   Walter Mondale   Nominated Geraldine Ferraro as VP   Rainbow Coalition   Campaign   Morning in America Morning in America

28 Reagan’s Impact  The Economy Under Reaganomics  Tripled national debt  $900 billion to $2.7 trillion  Trade deficits and debtor status  Inflation  12.5%(1980) to 4.4% (1988)  Unemployment  7.5% (1980) to 5.4% (1988)  Socioeconomic gap widened  Welfare programs cut  Black Monday (Oct. 19, 1987)  Stock prices fell 508 points - largest in history  Savings and Loan Crisis  Conservative Supreme Court Nominations  Sandra Day O’Connor - first female Justice  Antonin Scalia  Anthony Kennedy  War on Drugs  Just Say No - Nancy Reagan

29 The Burger Court ( )   Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)   New York Times v. United States (1971)   Roe v. Wade (1973)   Miller v. California (1973)   United States v. Nixon (1974)   Buckley v. Valeo (1976)   Gregg v. Georgia (1976)   Regents of UC v. Bakke (1978)   Bowers v. Hardwick (1986)

30 Election of 1988   Democrats   Michael Dukakis   Republicans   George H.W. Bush   Campaign   “Read my lips. No new taxes.” “Read my lips. No new taxes.”   Dukakis in the Tank Dukakis in the Tank   Willie Horton ad Willie Horton ad

31 George H.W. Bush (R) ( )  American with Disabilities Act (1990)  Recession ( )  Savings and Loan Crisis  27th Amendment (1992)  Persian Gulf War (1991)  Highest popularity due to swift victory

32 Election of 1992   Democrats   Bill Clinton   Republicans   George H.W. Bush   Reform Party   H. Ross Perot

33 Bill Clinton (D) ( )   North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (1994)   Republican Revolution (1994)   Contract with America   Newt Gingrich   Welfare Reform Act (1996)   Lewinski Scandal   Impeachment

34 Election of 1996   Democrats   Bill Clinton   Republicans   Bob Dole   Reform Party   H. Ross Perot

35 Election of 2000   Democrats   Al Gore   Republicans   George W. Bush   Green Party   Ralph Nader   Bush v. Gore (2000)


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