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Spanish Civil War Spanish Civil War. The Falange Espanola: Spanish Fascism Fascism reared its ugly head Fascism reared its ugly head Similar to Nazi party.

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Presentation on theme: "Spanish Civil War Spanish Civil War. The Falange Espanola: Spanish Fascism Fascism reared its ugly head Fascism reared its ugly head Similar to Nazi party."— Presentation transcript:

1 Spanish Civil War Spanish Civil War

2 The Falange Espanola: Spanish Fascism Fascism reared its ugly head Fascism reared its ugly head Similar to Nazi party and Italian Fascist party Similar to Nazi party and Italian Fascist party Anti-parliamentary and sought one-party rule Anti-parliamentary and sought one-party rule Not racist but attached importance to Roman Catholic Church Not racist but attached importance to Roman Catholic Church Elections held in 1934 brought in a Conservative government Elections held in 1934 brought in a Conservative government

3 Popular Fronts: alliances of the left In Feb 1936, elections in Spain returned an alliance of Republicans, Socialists and Communists In Feb 1936, elections in Spain returned an alliance of Republicans, Socialists and Communists This was the spark that lit the fires of civil war in Spain This was the spark that lit the fires of civil war in Spain

4 The War Ministers of government were all moderates-no communists were elected Ministers of government were all moderates-no communists were elected However the right reacted violently and resorted to terrorism which provoked the communists However the right reacted violently and resorted to terrorism which provoked the communists

5 Judges or journalists who condemned the fascists were assassinated The groups that took advantage of this civil unrest were the army officers, the traditionalists and the monarchists The groups that took advantage of this civil unrest were the army officers, the traditionalists and the monarchists Revolt took place in Morocco and throughout Spain led by General Sanjurjo, he was killed in a plane crash and replaced by General Francisco Franco Revolt took place in Morocco and throughout Spain led by General Sanjurjo, he was killed in a plane crash and replaced by General Francisco Franco

6 Franco Franco had the support of the fascists- Falange but they were unable to seize power for 3 reasons Franco had the support of the fascists- Falange but they were unable to seize power for 3 reasons Mass of Spanish people resisted the revolt and fought it for three years Mass of Spanish people resisted the revolt and fought it for three years Foreign powers saw it as a struggle between Fascism and democracy or socialism Foreign powers saw it as a struggle between Fascism and democracy or socialism

7 Republicans v Nationalists On paper the Nationalists had the advantage- superior military strength and experience On paper the Nationalists had the advantage- superior military strength and experience However navy divided, each side had one battleship- navy officers were nationalists/sailors were republicans However navy divided, each side had one battleship- navy officers were nationalists/sailors were republicans The Republican side consisted of a few army officers, workers and peasants, Basques and Catalans, they held important industrial areas The Republican side consisted of a few army officers, workers and peasants, Basques and Catalans, they held important industrial areas

8 Republicans v Nationalists By the end of 1936 the Nationalists held more than half of Spain, mostly in the South, west and North By the end of 1936 the Nationalists held more than half of Spain, mostly in the South, west and North Franco proclaimed himself the ‘chief of the Spanish state’ Franco proclaimed himself the ‘chief of the Spanish state’ The Republicans led by Largo Caballero held all eastern and south-east Spain The Republicans led by Largo Caballero held all eastern and south-east Spain If there had been no foreign intervention it seems likely that the republicans would have won as they had the bulk of the population If there had been no foreign intervention it seems likely that the republicans would have won as they had the bulk of the population

9 The fighting Both sides Fought furiously and atrocities were common e.g. priests were shot, families were divided Both sides Fought furiously and atrocities were common e.g. priests were shot, families were divided In Republican areas different factions were in control, workers took over factories, churches were burned down, middle class people stayed out of sight or went unshaven to avoid identification In Republican areas different factions were in control, workers took over factories, churches were burned down, middle class people stayed out of sight or went unshaven to avoid identification

10 Progress of the Spanish Civil war Winter : Nationalists attack Madrid Winter : Nationalists attack Madrid Spring 1937: a wedge is driven between the Basques and Catalans Spring 1937: a wedge is driven between the Basques and Catalans Summer 1937: attack on the Basques, Guernica bombed by the German Condor legion Summer 1937: attack on the Basques, Guernica bombed by the German Condor legion Early 1938:Teruel captured, nationalists driveto separate Barcelona (Catalonia) from Madrid Early 1938:Teruel captured, nationalists driveto separate Barcelona (Catalonia) from Madrid Summer : Barcelona fell Summer : Barcelona fell Feb 1939: Madrid fell late March Feb 1939: Madrid fell late March

11 Fascist Intervention Germany provided Junker transport planes which kept Franco’s forces in the war in the early stages Germany provided Junker transport planes which kept Franco’s forces in the war in the early stages In 1936 Germany and Italy officially recognised Franco’s regime and expected a rapid victory In 1936 Germany and Italy officially recognised Franco’s regime and expected a rapid victory

12 The Republicans organised the defence of Madrid Reinforcements sent were the first of the International Brigades Reinforcements sent were the first of the International Brigades Recruited from left wing opponents of Fascism Recruited from left wing opponents of Fascism Some had fought in the war others had no military training Some had fought in the war others had no military training

13 British Intervention  Men came from all over including Germany, Italy and Scotland (500) they gave up their jobs if they had one and made their own way to Paris  Towards the end of 1938 the Brigades withdrew because of a league of Nations peace initiative, many men had died including about 540 from Britain

14 British Intervention  Throughout the non-Fascist world, collections were organised to send humanitarian aid to Republican Spain  including the Labour party, TUC and Communists in Britain and Russia sent fighter planes to the Republicans to balance the assistance from Germany and Italy

15 France and Britain: Policy of Non- Intervention Britain made it clear to France however that it would not help against Germany as promised in the Locarno Pact if Blum was to help Spain Britain made it clear to France however that it would not help against Germany as promised in the Locarno Pact if Blum was to help Spain France suggested a policy of non- intervention, Britain seized this with enthusiasm later referring to it as France’s idea France suggested a policy of non- intervention, Britain seized this with enthusiasm later referring to it as France’s idea

16 British attitudes to the war Britain took the initiative in setting up a ‘Non Intervention Committee’ including France, Italy, Germany and Russia Britain took the initiative in setting up a ‘Non Intervention Committee’ including France, Italy, Germany and Russia The Republicans at this point thought they could win The Republicans at this point thought they could win Baldwin’s largely Conservative government thought that Franco was going to win and did not want to make an enemy of him Baldwin’s largely Conservative government thought that Franco was going to win and did not want to make an enemy of him They viewed the Republicans as Communist rather than democratic, feared impact on trade of ‘Red Spain’ They viewed the Republicans as Communist rather than democratic, feared impact on trade of ‘Red Spain’

17 Why Non-Intervention? The British government did not want to antagonise Mussolini further in the hope he would help against Hitler The British government did not want to antagonise Mussolini further in the hope he would help against Hitler ‘the bomber will always get through’ ‘the bomber will always get through’ Britain and France were losing their chance to stop the ‘advance of Fascism’ Britain and France were losing their chance to stop the ‘advance of Fascism’

18 Spanish Civil War Attitudes to the War

19 League of Nations Republicans claimed non-intervention was illegal since it denied help to a government recognised by the league, while failing to stop Italian and German aggression Republicans claimed non-intervention was illegal since it denied help to a government recognised by the league, while failing to stop Italian and German aggression League however was now a spent force, none of the major powers even pretended to operate through it League however was now a spent force, none of the major powers even pretended to operate through it

20 The Nyon Conference The ‘Non-intervention Committee’ set up naval blockade to stop weapons getting into Spain The ‘Non-intervention Committee’ set up naval blockade to stop weapons getting into Spain

21 Soviet Attitudes to the war Stalin provided the Republicans with just enough aid to keep them going Stalin provided the Republicans with just enough aid to keep them going He knew that he could not win the war as a communist government would not be accepted He knew that he could not win the war as a communist government would not be accepted However, whilst Germany and Italy were busy in Spain they could not attack Russia However, whilst Germany and Italy were busy in Spain they could not attack Russia Therefore he wanted the war to last as long as possible Therefore he wanted the war to last as long as possible

22 Nazi Germany’s attitude Used Spanish war as testing ground for his air force Used Spanish war as testing ground for his air force Hitler was happy to see Italy tied up so he was free to act in Austria Hitler was happy to see Italy tied up so he was free to act in Austria

23 Fascist Italy’s motives Hoped to establish the Mediterranean as an Italian sphere of influence Hoped to establish the Mediterranean as an Italian sphere of influence Shared the same ideology as Franco Shared the same ideology as Franco

24 Cost of Civil war Cost- Spain one million dead Cost- Spain one million dead Destruction of cities Destruction of cities Franco established himself in power where he long survived his sponsors, Mussolini and Hitler until his death in 1975Franco’s victory was another triumph for Hitler, ignored non-intervention which was the policy of the league Franco established himself in power where he long survived his sponsors, Mussolini and Hitler until his death in 1975Franco’s victory was another triumph for Hitler, ignored non-intervention which was the policy of the league Democracy had again been discredited and authoritarian Fascism appeared triumphant Democracy had again been discredited and authoritarian Fascism appeared triumphant

25 Consequences of victory Hitler was pleased to have another ally on France’s southern border Hitler was pleased to have another ally on France’s southern border Although Spain was exhausted by the civil war and remained neutral in WW2 Although Spain was exhausted by the civil war and remained neutral in WW2 Rome-Berlin Axis was a reality, Germany and Italy able to work together Rome-Berlin Axis was a reality, Germany and Italy able to work together Weakness of appeasement again shown Weakness of appeasement again shown Testing ground for new weapons and tactics Testing ground for new weapons and tactics Hitler now ready to take his next step Czechoslovakia Hitler now ready to take his next step Czechoslovakia


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