Rhetorical Analogies Comparison of two things or a likening of one thing to another in order to make one of them appear better or worse than it might be Different: Substitute for arguments, include both metaphors & similes, includes comparisons, and the comparisons can be problematic Problems in vagueness
Examples Substitute for arguments: Facts are required to show that SS is financially unsustainable; it's less work & possibly just as effective to call it a Ponzi scheme Metaphors: "Jenna is a loose cannon" Similes: "Hillary's eyes bulge just a little, like a Chihuahua's"
Comparison Examples Comparison: "You have a better chance of being struck by lightning than winning the lottery" "Having kids is like having a bowling alley installed in your brain" Problematic comparison: "Now 25% larger" "New and improved formula" "Quietest by far"
Keep in mind! Is important information missing? Is the same standard of comparison used? Are the same reporting and recording practices being used? Are the items comparable? Is the comparison expressed as an average? Averages are measures of central tendency and there are different kinds of measures or averages (mean, median or mode)
Chapter 3 Kinds of Definitions Definition by example (ostensive): pointing to, naming, or otherwise identifying one or more examples of the sort of thing to which the term applies Definition by synonym: giving another word or phrase that means the same as the term being defined Analytical definition: specifying the feature that a thing must possess in order for the term being defined to apply to it Almost all dictionary definitions are of the analytical variety
Rhetorical Definitions Use emotively charged language to express or elicit an attitude about something Difference: Definitions by example can slant a discussion if the examples are prejudicially chosen Example: Defining abortion as "The murder of an unborn child"
Rhetorical Explanations Explanation intended to influence attitudes or affect behavior Difference: same kind of slanting device, this time clothed as explanation (endow (give) with a particular quality) Example: "He lost the fight because he's lost his nerve" vs "he was too cautious?"