Presentation on theme: "Unit 18. Language Structure Sentence of unreal condition related to sth. being done at present If sb. + were + doing…, would (might, should, could) 根据."— Presentation transcript:
Language Structure Sentence of unreal condition related to sth. being done at present If sb. + were + doing…, would (might, should, could) 根据 情况选用时态 –If human beings were not killing each other, we could be living a happy life. –If you hadn’t been studying so hard, you might have failed the exam. –If she were learning tailoring now, she’d be making her own clothes soon.
Sentence of unreal condition with the connective “unless” …would (not ) do sth unless sb. had done if …not I couldn’t have bought it unless I had had enough money. –I couldn’t have bought it if I had not had enough money. –The fact is: I had bought it because I had enough money. She wouldn’t sing them unless she had learned them properly. –She wouldn’t sing them if she had not learned them properly. –The fact is: She has learned them properly, so she is going to sing.
Sentence of unreal condition with the word “suppose(ing)” referring to future suppose(ing) + n + were + done, … would do… –Supposing there were a test tomorrow, Tom wouldn’t watch TV tonight. –Supposing that it rains, we won’t go out. ( 下雨的可能性很大 ) –Supposing that it rained, we shouldn’t go out. ( 对将来的假设）
Sentence of unreal condition with the word “otherwise” referring to the past ….., otherwise + S + would(not) have done 这种句子往往是有虚拟语气的主句而没有非真实条件从句，为隐 含的非真实条件句。常见的表示非真实条件的词有： with, without, but for, or, but otherwise, even 等 –Under such circumstances I would probably have done the same. –But for your timely help, I would have gone bankrupt –The crops would have become withered without the rain.
If it hadn’t been for…, I would (not ) have done… If it had not been for… 如果当时没有 … ( 与过去事实相反 ) –If it had not been for your timely help, I would have missed the plane. If it were not for… 如果没有 … ( 与现在事实相反 ) –If it were not for the rain, the crops should / would become withered. 以上两句均可用 but for 或 without 替换
Questions What did A and B think of their field trip? –Could have been more exciting if some of the ancient monuments had not been pulled down What happened to those historical relics? –Some ancient monuments destroyed –Stately Drum Tower pulled down –The thousand-year-old corridor made into a hotel, ravaged by kitchen smoke –Tombstone turned into a tea table
What are the probable reasons that people destroyed historical relics? –For money, for city traffic, ignorant of the real value of our cultural heritage What should the government do to those who damage the ancient monuments and those in charge of the local relics administration? –Severely punished both financially and criminally –laws issued which impose well-defined restrictions on the export of valuable antiques –Those who fail to fulfill their duties should be removed from their office
Terms related to historical/ cultural relics Historical/cultural relics Major historical and cultural sites under state protection Site Regenerate Remake Excavate, underground palace (the coffin chamber of an emperor’s tomb)
Language Points Legacy inheritance heritage 从法律意义上讲， inheritance 指根据遗嘱已被继承了的遗产，包括不 动产和动产； legacy 专指遗产中的动产，包括金钱部分； heritage 则指 继承人有权获得的不动产； 从广义上讲， inheritance 可泛指从前辈那里继承来的任何东西，从遗 传特征到文化传统，通常表示继承的抽象动作，如 –Mr. Jones received his house by inheritance. Legacy 和 heritage 都可表示从过去继承来的东西，但 legacy 常指某事、 某物和某人遗留的后果，如 –Disease and famine are often legacies of war. Heritage 特指某些持久的具体的食物，如纪念碑、建筑物、天然资源 和风俗等被认为属于某个国家或团体全体成员的事物，如 –We Chinese have a rich historical and cultural heritage.
Have the heart to do sth 通常只用于否定句和疑问句 I don’t have the heart to tell him that he hasn’t any hope of getting the job. How could you have the heart to treat such a delicate and helpless dog so cruelly? Have a heart 发发慈悲，做点好事， 通常只用于祈使句 Have a heart, Mr. Gray. All the workers need a rest.
define 下定义 –The simplest word may be the most difficult one to define. 规定，详细说明；阐明，阐述 –Define the position of the government 阐明政府的立 场 –Define the boundary of two nations 划定两国的边界 勾画处 … 的轮廓或外形 –The gentle hills were clearly defined against the sky. 在天空的衬托下丘陵显得轮廓分明。
Endow sb./sth. with sth. 捐赠，捐助，资助 The rich businessman endowed the hospital with half his fortune. 赋予，天赋，常用被动语态 –He is richly endowed by nature. 他有极高的天分。 –She is well endowed with intelligence. 她天资聪慧。 –He was endowed with the power of acute observation. –This country is favorably endowed climatically. – 这个国家的气候得天独厚。 –The plains are endowed with rich soil and plentiful rainfall. 这片平原土壤肥沃，雨量充沛。
Phrases and expressions Could have had the heart to do sth. Be ravaged by… Relics administration Remove sb. from one’s office Commit an inexcusable crime Cultural heritage, national treasure Construction site Impose well-defined restrictions on the export of valuable antiques It’s up to sb. to do sth.
prefer Prefer doing sth. –I prefer swimming. Prefer to don sth. –Because it’s raining, I prefer to play table tennis inside. Prefer doing sth. to doing sth. –I prefer swimming to playing table tennis. Prefer to do sth rather than do sth. –I prefer to play table tennis rather than swim because it is raining. Prefer doing sth. rather than doing sth. –She prefers remaining single rather than having a family. Prefer that… ( 虚拟语气 ) –She prefers that she should be treated equally.
Say a few words about the Taj Mahal In India A tomb built by an emperor in honor of his beloved wife Made of marble, called “a poem in marble” Shimmer, sparkle, glow, gleam Pick up the color of the sunset, gleam like pink jewels Turn from silver to gold
Phrases and expressions Illustrated pamphlet Colored inlays Tower = minaret Mystic enchantment overwhelming Out of this world Grow to manhood Seize the throne / come to throne / ascend / mount /take the throne
Request v. All I request of you is that you (should) be punctual. ~ sth. from(of) sb. Formally ~ sb. to attend the opening ceremony Earnestly ~ a loan from the bank. Your presence is immediately ~ed. You are respectfully ~ed to …. Contributions are ~ed for the refugees.
Request n. Advance a ~, put forward a ~, convey sb’s ~, Fulfill a ~, grant one’s ~, comply with one’s ~, The ~ will be respected. You shall have your ~. I should with pleasure grant your ~. Decline a ~, deny / refuse a ~ Make sb. two ~s I have a ~ to make of you. In great ~, Upon one’s ~, at sb’s ~/ at the ~ of sb. She will sing by ~. Insistent ~, a moderate ~, a reasonable ~, popular ~, make repeated ~s, special ~, a wide-spread ~, a written ~
Flash, flicker, gleam, glimmer, glint, glisten, glister, glitter, shimmer, spark, sparkle, winkle Flash: 亮光闪了一闪，持续的时间短暂，指黑与光交替出现（ regular on-and-off attention) –The ~ing red of the lever-crossing light –The lightning ~ed. –They watched the ~ing lights of the cars. Gleam ：指两个耀眼，尤指能够映射物体的亮光 ; 也指突然闪现耀眼的 亮光 –The red ~ of the firelight~ –Gleams of sunshine came round the edges of the dark cloud. Glint: 发出耀眼的亮点，多修饰人在渴望或迫切时眼睛瞳孔熠熠发光 –His eyes ~ed when he saw the money –Under a blue sky and a ~ing sun Sparkle: 指晶体物闪闪发光，多用于体积小的物体 –A diamond that ~ed in the sunlight, a ~ing diamond, a ~ing drop of dew
Glitter: 常带否定意味， 多指艳俗低廉、华而不实 –~ing trinkets Glisten: 指从水面或其它液体等的表面反射光亮 –His hair ~ed with oil. –Eyes ~ing with tears –Perspiration ~ed on his forehead Flicker: relates mostly to sources rather than reflection of light, but suggests a more sporadic or irregular wavering than the earlier words –~ing logs in the fireplace Shimmer: stresses, in contrast, reflected light that undulates quickly in a soft or dazzling blur 指水面在亮光映照下所发出柔和的波动的亮光 –~ing water in the moonlight Glimmer: may apply either to sources or to reflections, fainter than for flickering and slower undulations than for shimmering 发出微弱闪烁不定 的亮光 –The last coals of the ~ing fire –Traces of moonlight in the ~ing darkness of the room
Twinkle: 亮光闪闪烁烁，多用于星光 –The ~ing light of the stars Spark: 因燃烧或摩擦而产生火花迸射的现象 Strike ~s from a flint Strike out ~s The burning wood threw off ~s A single ~ can start a prairie
Banish exile deport expel Banish 指根据政府法令迫使某人终生或于特定时期内离境，以示惩罚，尤指迫 使某人离开某一国境 The dictator banished his opponents from the country. Exile 指被迫离开祖国或居住地，含有流放、放逐、使背井离乡的意思 They exiled Napoleon to the island of St. Helena. Many people were exiled from Russia for life. Deport 指驱逐某人离开他所寄居的地方（非其祖国 ), 其原因可能是因其非法进 入，或因其做出与其身份不相称的违法行为等 We deport aliens who slip across our borders. The diplomat was deported. Expel 用武力驱逐或赶跑，多指借助外在的或人为的力量驱赶 ; 将某人从学校或 俱乐部开除、赶走 The soldiers expelled the enemy from a town. The boy was expelled from school