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1 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Chapter15 Urbanization by John Hannigan
2 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Cities are relatively large, densely populated, permanent settlements in which most residents do not produce their own food. The first cities, established mainly as centres of religious worship, appeared in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) and Egypt, 5000– 6000 years ago. CITIES
3 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. PREINDUSTRIAL CITIES The growth of preindustrial cities required: a food surplus in fertile valleys, which allowed some people to work in non- agricultural jobs; literacy among elites, scribes, and priests, which allowed the keeping of financial and other records; and technological innovations, which allowed agricultural irrigation, sailing, and grain milling.
4 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. URBAN GROWTH
5 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. The industrial city was larger, more complex, and more dynamic than its predecessor. Industrial cities grew because of: advances in transportation and agricultural technology (land drainage, fertilizers, steam power); improved means of accumulating capital (the joint stock company); and the growth of the factory, which required that workers be concentrated in a central location. THE INDUSTRIAL CITY
6 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. At Confederation (1867), Canada lagged behind Britain and the United States in the development of an urban-industrial economy. However, the Canada Bank Act of 1871 was instrumental in concentrating economic power in Toronto and Montreal. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN URBAN-INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY IN CANADA I
7 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Intervention by the federal government helped to establish a national economic market (e.g., transcontinental railway, protective tariff system). This led to the expansion of wheat production and increased sales of manufactured goods by central Canadian factories to prairie farmers. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN URBAN-INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY IN CANADA II
8 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. URBAN–RURAL POPULATION, CANADA,
9 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. POPULATION OF CANADA’S BIGGEST METROPOLITAN AREAS, 1951–1996 (IN 000s)
10 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Robert E. Park and his colleagues studied Chicago’s “social pathologies” – crime, mental illness, juvenile delinquency, family breakdown, etc. – in the first decades of this century. They assumed there was a big contrast between rural and urban life. They thought rural life involves a strong community feeling and social solidarity, while anonymous urban life destroys the traditional bases of community. THE CHICAGO SCHOOL
11 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Burgess’ concentric-zone model conceptualized cities as a succession of five concentric rings, each containing a distinct population and type of land use. ECOLOGY OF THE INDUSTRIAL CITY I
12 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Central Business District: major department stores, live theatres, hotels, banks, offices Zone of Transition: cheap housing for each new immigrant wave and the centre of illegal activities Zone of Working-Class Homes: settlements of second-generation immigrants and rural migrants Zone of Better Residences: middle-class homes Commuter Zone: suburbs and satellite towns ECOLOGY OF THE INDUSTRIAL CITY II
BURGESS ’ CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL APPLIED TO CHICAGO Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.
14 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. ECOLOGY OF THE INDUSTRIAL CITY III The Burgess model fit early twentieth century Chicago well but does not apply to all cities and all eras. Often there is more than one growth nucleus. Transportation corridors often act as magnets for urban growth. Some people develop strong attachments to their neighbourhoods and refuse to move out despite an aging housing stock, preferring instead to renew it.
15 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. URBANIZATION IN THE THIRD WORLD Third World urbanization is characterized by a high degree of urban primacy – that is, one metropolitan centre is much larger and more dominant than any of the others. The population of urban areas is growing faster than the urban economy, services, and resources can absorb it. This process is called overurbanization. Sociologists are concerned with urban bias – that is, uneven investment and development that favour urban over rural areas.
16 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. After World War II the corporate city increasingly replaced the industrial city. The five major elements of the corporate city are: the corporate suburb; high rise apartment buildings; suburban industrial parks; downtown office towers; and suburban shopping malls. THE CORPORATE CITY I
17 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Before 1939, most residents of large cities lived within a few blocks of neighbourhood stores and services. This created constant pedestrian traffic and a lively “front yard culture.” In Don Mills, the first Canadian corporate suburb: large houses with front porches were set back from the streets, which had no sidewalks and little pedestrian traffic; every family had to own a car and use it extensively; and corporate involvement minimized the municipality’s authority. THE CORPORATE CITY II: THE SUBURB
18 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. SUBURBANISM I In the 1950s, suburbs were often considered sterile social and cultural wastelands where conformity ruled and individual taste was stifled. However, suburbanites were more socially active with their neighbours than downtown residents. Suburbanism was further depicted as a lifestyle choice with an emphasis on children and the family. Women often felt isolated and dissatisfied.
19 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. SUBURBANISM II There are three different interpretations of suburbanism and lifestyle patterns: The structural interpretation holds that the demographic characteristics of suburbs encourage a distinct life- style. The selective migration interpretation holds that people already primed for familism moved to the suburbs. Finally, the class and life-cycle interpretation believes that suburbanism is just a snapshot of middle-class life at mid-century.
20 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. THE POSTMODERN CITY I The postmodern city: is shaped by the globalization of consumption (e.g., small ethnic neighbourhood restaurants are replaced by global chains); is fragmented and chaotic and does not have a single culturally homogeneous way of life; and privatizes public space (e.g., the creation of shopping malls and “gated communities”).
21 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Postmodern cities consist of three overlapping components: the edge city; the dual city; and the fantasy city. None of these components exists in pure form. THE POSTMODERN CITY II
22 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. THE EDGE CITY I Unlike industrial or corporate cities, edge cities: have no dominant core or clearly marked boundaries; are located in rural residential areas around suburbs; and are typically clusters of malls, office developments, and entertainment complexes that emerge where major highways converge.
23 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. THE EDGE CITY II Edge cities emerged because of: a shift from manufacturing to services; transportation patterns that favoured trucks and cars over fixed-line public carriers; the growth of advanced telecommunications; the rising costs of doing business downtown; and the desire of dual-income baby-boom families to shop, eat, and be entertained without commuting downtown.
24 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. THE DUAL CITY The term dual city describes the increasing polarization between glitzy, high-tech parts of the city and its dilapidated areas. It refers to the two increasingly divergent streams in the global economy: the information-based formal economy rooted in financial services, telecommunications, and the microchip, and the informal economy in which residents rely on face-to-face interaction, usually based on race and ethnicity.
25 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. GENTRIFICATION I Gentrification involves the transformation of working-class housing into fashionable down-town neighbourhoods.
26 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Explanations for gentrification: Many childless and career-oriented “baby boomers” were interested in housing near their downtown workplaces and were content with smaller homes. Developers saw big profit potential in investing in depressed downtown areas. Middle-class newcomers to the central city wanted for a more cosmopolitan lifestyle. The number of well-paid jobs downtown grew. However, research shows that most gentrifiers come from other parts of the city, not the suburbs. GENTRIFICATION II
27 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. COMPARISON OF SUBURBAN AND POSTMODERN URBAN LIFESTYLES
28 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. PRIVATE COMMUNITIES Recent years have witnessed the rise of private communities. Private communities offer a racially and often ethnically homogeneous middle-class population; physical security and local control; stable housing values; and freedom from exposure to the social problems of the inner city.
29 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. THE FORTRESS CITY Postmodern cities are also systematically privatizing and militarizing public space to secure it against the homeless and the poor. Public-private partnerships ensure that poor people are isolated socially and spatially from office workers, tourists, etc. Los Angeles in particular has been called a “fortress city.”
30 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. THE FANTASY CITY I The fantasy city is the third component of the postmodern city. These “theme park cities” are a product of the developing “symbolic economy,” which is based on the marketing of images of popular culture. Cities increasingly rely on large retail and entertainment giants as well as “mega-events” for their economic well-being.
31 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. THE FANTASY CITY II Many sociologists regard fantasy cities with some alarm because: natural ties between the city and local and physical geography are severed; they are characterized by pervasive surveillance and security; and they are cities of simulations, confusing the urban “real” and the entertainment “ideal.”
32 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. COMPARISON OF INDUSTRIAL, CORPORATE AND POSTMODERN CITIES
33 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. SUPPLEMENTARY SLIDES
34 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. PERCENT OF WORLD POPULATION LIVING IN URBAN AREAS AND IN LARGE CITIES, 1800–2000 Percent
IMMIGRANTS ARE CONCENTRATED IN LARGE CITIES; SETTLEMENT PATTERNS USED TO BE DIFFERENT Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.
36 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.
37 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. PERCENT OF PROVINCIAL GDP PRODUCED BY SOME OF CANADA’S MAJOR CITIES
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