Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Unit 9: “Reading the Gospels Well” Aim: “to begin to examine the social context of the historical Jesus…”

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Unit 9: “Reading the Gospels Well” Aim: “to begin to examine the social context of the historical Jesus…”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 9: “Reading the Gospels Well” Aim: “to begin to examine the social context of the historical Jesus…”

2 What is the Incarnation? “Word made flesh…” “Word made flesh…” Why is this important as we transition between Sacramental life into a look at the Historical Jesus? Why is this important as we transition between Sacramental life into a look at the Historical Jesus?

3 “Jesus” Chapter 1… Mark’s Gospel: (first) around 70 AD, tells about Jesus’ public ministry Mark’s Gospel: (first) around 70 AD, tells about Jesus’ public ministry Jesus as the “suffering Messiah...” Jesus as the “suffering Messiah...” Matthew and Luke: (around 85-90) Matthew and Luke: (around 85-90) Matthew = Jewish-ness of Jesus Matthew = Jewish-ness of Jesus Luke = liberation theology (other centered) Luke = liberation theology (other centered)

4 “A word about the Word…” CYB … CYB … Gospel, comes from the Greek euangelion, which means “big news”/ ”good news…” Gospel, comes from the Greek euangelion, which means “big news”/ ”good news…” Synoptic? Synoptic? Means “seeing the whole together…” Means “seeing the whole together…” What does this mean? What does this mean? Mark, Matt, Luke… Mark, Matt, Luke…

5 Other Sources? Jewish Antiquities (1 st Century AD) Jewish Antiquities (1 st Century AD) May have inserted their own opinions because of explicit statements about Jesus/ identity. May have inserted their own opinions because of explicit statements about Jesus/ identity. Any others? Any others? Q (quelle, means “source…”) – Common source for Synoptics… Q (quelle, means “source…”) – Common source for Synoptics…

6 Gospel Development… Think back to types of tradition…(1 st Semester) Think back to types of tradition…(1 st Semester) Oral and Written Oral and Written Adapted to various settings and communities = key component! Adapted to various settings and communities = key component!

7 Process of Gospel Development Three Realities in mind: Three Realities in mind: 1. focus on the evangelist… 1. focus on the evangelist… 2. development of the early Church… 2. development of the early Church… 3. who Jesus was… 3. who Jesus was… What does this mean? What does this mean?

8 “Romans in Israel Article:” Roman Rule Romans conquer in 63 BCE Romans conquer in 63 BCE Romans appoint Herod the Great, as “king of the Jews” in 37 BCE Romans appoint Herod the Great, as “king of the Jews” in 37 BCE –What was Herod’s governing style? –Rules up to his death in 4 BCE Palestine is divided into four Palestine is divided into four –Herod’s three sons each receive one region Herod Antipas, Herod the Great’s son, takes control of Galilee Herod Antipas, Herod the Great’s son, takes control of Galilee

9 Roman Rule Romans force the region to accept a Roman Procurator (governor) in 6 CE Romans force the region to accept a Roman Procurator (governor) in 6 CE –Fifth procurator was Pontius Pilate, who began his rule in 26 CE

10 Destruction of Jerusalem 64 CE – Fire of Rome 64 CE – Fire of Rome 66 CE - Zealots lead charge to rebel against Roman rule 66 CE - Zealots lead charge to rebel against Roman rule –Who were they?? –They want their independence/no taxes Rome lashes back Rome lashes back –Temple and all of Jerusalem is wasted by 70 CE Judaism in turmoil Judaism in turmoil –Who should we look to at this time of crisis?

11 Roman Rule There was constant turbulence because Jews had various ideas of how to live There was constant turbulence because Jews had various ideas of how to live –Conversion? Violence? In the Jewish mind the enemy of their past - Egypt - has been replaced by Rome! In the Jewish mind the enemy of their past - Egypt - has been replaced by Rome!

12 Key Geographical Regions Galilee Galilee –Back-water, second-class citizens –Spoke Aramaic, not Hebrew –Most Hellenized Samaria Samaria –Half-breeds –Judeans tried to impose orthodox Judaism on the people of Samaria Judea Judea –Founded by the “Faithful Remnant” Idumea Idumea –South of Judea –Forced to Accept Judaism

13 Jerusalem…the Holy Land The Holy Land is a small region that was divided into several main regions: The Holy Land is a small region that was divided into several main regions: 1.Galilee- Northern Region 2.Samaria- Central Region 3.Judea – Southern Region

14 Jerusalem Easily defensible = mountain with 3 valleys surrounding it Easily defensible = mountain with 3 valleys surrounding it Trade route = plenty of water… Trade route = plenty of water… Good choice for a capital! Good choice for a capital! The center of Jewish religion and society was Jerusalem The center of Jewish religion and society was Jerusalem –Jerusalem was in Judea –Place where Jesus died –“Mount of Olives” had a clear view of the temple

15 Jewish Family Objectification of all women and children Objectification of all women and children –Family  the possession of the father –Patriarchal Society –Jesus’ reaction???  How did Jesus treat women and children? The FLIP SIDE: Essential organizing unit of society and religion The FLIP SIDE: Essential organizing unit of society and religion

16 Jewish Society Jesus was born and lived among a Jewish community, at the time they were expecting the apocalypse… Jesus was born and lived among a Jewish community, at the time they were expecting the apocalypse… –Life was not what God had promised 1.They did not rule themselves/ self-government 2.They were being oppressed and occasional persecutions 3.They had little hope for their future and therefore they believed and focused their life around the belief the end was near

17 Social Identity at Jesus’ Time Measured by: Measured by: –Family status (wealth, etc.) –Who you associated, especially friends –Who you ate with –Whether or not you employed others

18 Economic Context… There were three major factors that drove the economy: There were three major factors that drove the economy: 1.Agriculture, especially olive and fig crops 2.They were centrally located between trade routes of the East and West 3.Civil Projects funded by Rome to increase and update its infrastructure –It was the main employer of the Jewish people Also, we must remember there was a huge gap between the rich and poor!! Also, we must remember there was a huge gap between the rich and poor!! –Rome placed heavy taxes upon Jews, and laws that forced their participation in Roman religious rituals

19 Political Context… Jewish people were secluded from the Empire… Jewish people were secluded from the Empire… –They tried to stay separated from the Gentiles Internal issues and tension developed within the Jewish community Internal issues and tension developed within the Jewish community –It especially developed between the Pharisees and Sadducees (we’ll get back to this…)

20 Religious Context… Jews were monotheists, Romans were pagans Jews were monotheists, Romans were pagans Jews were in a time of waiting and anticipation for the messiah, their savior of the Roman Empire, and the earthly world Jews were in a time of waiting and anticipation for the messiah, their savior of the Roman Empire, and the earthly world –They believed the messiah could possibly be a political and military leader… –And he would lead them to independence

21 Cultural Context… Jews were “outcasts” as a community Jews were “outcasts” as a community –They refused to assimilate to their ruling state The Roman Empire at the time spoke Greek The Roman Empire at the time spoke Greek –Jews did not use Greek, they spoke Aramaic The Center of the village was the Synagogue… The Center of the village was the Synagogue… –Especially for religious and political affairs

22 The Religious World of Jesus Judaism: Special Places Temple Temple –Built by King Solomon, c. 950 BC –Destroyed by the Babylonians, 587 BC –Re-Built by Faithful Remnant, BC –Expanded by Herod the Great, c. 20 BC-45 AD –Destroyed by the Romans, 70 AD  Western Wall (Wailing Wall) remains

23 The Religious World of Jesus A modern day photograph of the Western Wall (Wailing Wall) of the Jerusalem Temple.

24 The Religious World of Jesus Judaism: Special Places Temple Temple –Purpose  Central location for communal prayer and worship  Sacrificial offerings on a daily basis  Marketplace –Leadership  The Great Sanhedrin, especially the Sadducees

25 The Religious World of Jesus A scholarly sketch of King Herod’s enlarged and rebuilt Temple and Temple Mount which was started in 19 BC and completed in 64 AD. From Secrets of Jerusalem’s Temple Mount by Leen Ritmeyer.

26 The Religious World of Jesus Judaism: Special Places Synagogues Synagogues –Started being built during the Babylonian Exile (587 BC) when communal worship in the Temple was impossible –Grew in importance after the Temple was destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD

27 The Religious World of Jesus A scholarly sketch of the Gamla Synagogue. It may have been built during the time of King Herod the Great during the 1 st Century BC. It was destroyed by the Romans during the Jewish Revolt in 67 AD. From the English Standard Version (ESV) Study Bible.

28 The Religious World of Jesus Judaism: Special Places Synagogues Synagogues –Purpose  Local paces for communal prayer and worship, especially on the Sabbath day  Focus is on the Torah and the Stories of the Covenant relationship between God and the Chosen People of Israel  School for education –Leadership  The Scribes (rabbis) and Pharisees

29 The Palestinian Social Pyramid: I The Powerful/Wealthy (2%) Great Sanhedrin –Priests –Sadducees –Pharisees (some of them) Held 90% of the farmable land (the real resource at the time) Held 90% of the farmable land (the real resource at the time) Held much of the political influence consequently Held much of the political influence consequently

30 The Palestinian Social Pyramid: II Working Class (70%) Trade Workers Trade Workers –Carpenters, tanners, bakers Farmers and Fishermen Farmers and Fishermen

31 The Palestinian Social Pyramid: III Day Laborers and Traveling Laborers (15%) –Subsistence Workers, Farmers, Shepherds  Barely made enough to survive

32 The Palestinian Social Pyramid: IV Social Outcasts (15%) “The Unclean” “The Unclean” indigent poor and sick indigent poor and sick Widows and Orphans Widows and Orphans

33 The Political World of Jesus An Oppressed People under the rule of the Roman Empire An Oppressed People under the rule of the Roman Empire –What do the Jewish people “re-member” to provide them with hope during this time of hardship?  The Exodus Story – journey from slavery to freedom –Their ancestor’s experience of captivity and slavery in Egypt –That God called Moses to lead the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt  The Story of the Kingdom of Israel –Their ancestor’s experience of constant fighting with the Canaanites and the Philistines –That God called King David to defeat the enemies of Israel and establish a Kingdom in the Promised Land  The Hope of the Prophets –Their ancestor’s experience of the Babylonian Exile –That God restored the Faithful Remnant to fullness of life in Jerusalem

34 The Political World of Jesus An Oppressed People under the rule of the Roman Empire… An Oppressed People under the rule of the Roman Empire… –strong leader, like Moses or David –The Jewish Expectation of the Messiah:  Like “King David”  A mighty warrior-king,  Great military leader, who would overthrow the Romans

35 The Social World of Jesus Jesus Poses Challenges to the Jewish Social Structures: Focus on the poor and weak Focus on the poor and weak Women within ministry Women within ministry Embraced the sick and the unclean Embraced the sick and the unclean Attacked wealthy/powerful who refused to share with those in need Attacked wealthy/powerful who refused to share with those in need Think Robin Hood…but no violence! Think Robin Hood…but no violence!

36 The Gospels: Focus on the Resurrection of Jesus The Gospels are Resurrection Stories The Gospels are Resurrection Stories  Jesus - more than a rabbi, a teacher, or the messiah…but Jesus was also the Lord God  The Gospels reveal the beauty and complexity of the Paschal Mystery

37 The Resurrection of Jesus Why is the Resurrection important to a study of Jesus? Why is the Resurrection important to a study of Jesus? –If it was not for the Resurrection, Jesus’ disciples and closest followers would have returned to their old ways  Peter had denied knowing Jesus  The male disciples had already abandoned Jesus and fled out of fear that they would also be captured and killed –The Resurrection of Jesus provides the disciples and closest followers with the courage and motivation to fearlessly proclaim the “good news” of the gospel –Reason the Gospel survived!

38 The Four Gospels of Jesus Lay the foundation for understanding the message and the mission of Jesus Lay the foundation for understanding the message and the mission of Jesus Each Gospel written for a specific community Each Gospel written for a specific community Stories of faith intended to inspire and strengthen Stories of faith intended to inspire and strengthen

39 In Class Reflection… “Have you ever been ridiculed or rejected by others – maybe even your friends – for trying to do the right thing?” “Have you ever been ridiculed or rejected by others – maybe even your friends – for trying to do the right thing?” 5 minutes…in your Notebooks! 5 minutes…in your Notebooks!

40 The Four Gospels of Jesus The author of the Gospel of Mark: The author of the Gospel of Mark: –Lion with wings –Gentile Christian, named John Mark

41 The Four Gospels of Jesus The Gospel According to Mark The Context of the Gospels: The Context of the Gospels:  Written as a result of the Resurrection –The Gospel According to Mark  Written for Gentile (non-Jewish) Christians in Rome who were experiencing persecution and death because of their belief and faith in Jesus  Approximately around AD

42 The Four Gospels of Jesus Mark’s Gospel: Two Fundamental Questions Who is this Jesus called the Christ? Who is this Jesus called the Christ? –Compassionate healer and miracle worker for suffering people –The human Messiah who accepted suffering as the cost that comes with doing God’s will What does it mean to be a disciple of Jesus? What does it mean to be a disciple of Jesus? –Initially, fearful and hard-hearted people who desired power, fame, and wealth –People who believe that Jesus was the Messiah and understand his mission –People who place their faith and total trust in Jesus/God

43 The Infancy Narratives Jesus’ Birth, Baptism, Temptations, and Mission for the Kingdom of God… Jesus’ Birth, Baptism, Temptations, and Mission for the Kingdom of God…

44 Why Infancy Narratives? Infancy narrative = “gospel in miniature” Infancy narrative = “gospel in miniature” The Gospels focus on the religious meaning of the Jesus event The Gospels focus on the religious meaning of the Jesus event –Who is this Jesus? How is Jesus the Christ/Messiah? Each gospel paints a particular portrait of Jesus’ mission and life Each gospel paints a particular portrait of Jesus’ mission and life

45 The Infancy Narratives Infancy Narrative Infancy Narrative –A story (myth) about Jesus’ birth and early life –Contained only in The Gospels of Matthew and Luke –Each account is a unique story

46 The Infancy Narratives Why? Why? –To provide a faith-filled response to the natural curiosity of the early faith community regarding the birth and early life of Jesus –To link Jesus to the great figures of the Hebrew Scriptures who experienced divine births –To introduce the central themes and purposes of the Gospel author

47 The Four Gospels of Jesus The author of the Gospel of Luke – –Ox with wings – –Gentile Christian, named Luke, may have been a disciple of Paul (also wrote Acts of the Apostles)

48 The Four Gospels of Jesus The Gospel According to Luke The Context of the Gospels – –The Early Disciples of Jesus   Written as a result of the Resurrection – –The Gospel According to Luke   Written for Gentile (non-Jewish) Christians who were Greek-speaking, wealthy, and well-educated   Approximately around AD

49 The Four Gospels of Jesus Luke’s Gospel: Two Fundamental Questions Who is this Jesus called the Christ? – –Merciful and compassionate Savior – –Special concern for the poor, outcasts, sinners, women, children, and non-Jews (Romans, Samaritans) What does it mean to be a disciple of Jesus? – –To welcome all people into the Kingdom of God

50 Gospel of Luke Luke’s Four Major Intentions 1. Show that the Good News is for everyone, especially those who are poor and downtrodden 1. Show that the Good News is for everyone, especially those who are poor and downtrodden –The angel Gabriel visits Mary (a woman) –The shepherds (itinerant laborers) who visit Jesus 2. Good news for Gentiles 2. Good news for Gentiles –Provides a genealogy of Jesus that traces his ancestry back to Adam, who is the father of all people, not just the Jews

51 Luke’s Four Major Intentions (Continued) 3. Portray Jesus as the divine Son of God 3. Portray Jesus as the divine Son of God –Provides a genealogy of Jesus that traces his ancestry back to Adam and, therefore, to God 4. Point out the connection between John the Baptist and Jesus 4. Point out the connection between John the Baptist and Jesus –Provides a birth sequence in which John shows the way to Jesus

52 The Four Gospels of Jesus The author of the Gospel of Matthew – –Human/Angel with wings Unknown, traditionally associated with the Apostle Matthew

53 The Four Gospels of Jesus The Gospel According to Matthew The Context of the Gospels – –The Early Disciples of Jesus   Written as a result of the Resurrection – –The Gospel According to Matthew   Written for Jewish Christians who were rejected by other Jews for their belief in Jesus   Approximately around 85 AD

54 The Four Gospels of Jesus Matthew’s Gospel: Two Fundamental Questions Who is this Jesus called the Christ? – –The promised Messiah of the Jewish people – –The new Moses (law giver), the new King David, and the greatest prophet = new law! What does it mean to be a disciple of Jesus? – –To be faithful to God who has fulfilled the promises of the Jewish tradition

55 Gospel of Matthew Matthew’s Three Major Intentions 1. Show his Jewish readers that Jesus was the Messiah they had been waiting for 1. Show his Jewish readers that Jesus was the Messiah they had been waiting for –Provides a genealogy of Jesus to demonstrate that Jesus was from the line of King David

56 Matthew’s Three Major Intentions (Continued) 2. Show his Jewish readers that Gentiles often accepted Jesus as the Messiah even though many Jews rejected him 2. Show his Jewish readers that Gentiles often accepted Jesus as the Messiah even though many Jews rejected him –Includes the story of the wise men (or Magi), who were non-Jewish men

57 Matthew’s Three Major Intentions (Continued) 3. Portray Jesus as “the new Moses” 3. Portray Jesus as “the new Moses” –The Holy Family flees to Egypt and is called out after Herod’s death, reflecting the stories contained in the Book of Exodus


Download ppt "Unit 9: “Reading the Gospels Well” Aim: “to begin to examine the social context of the historical Jesus…”"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google