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Unit 10: The Context of the Gospels. Section 4: The Religious World of Jesus.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 10: The Context of the Gospels. Section 4: The Religious World of Jesus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 10: The Context of the Gospels

2 Section 4: The Religious World of Jesus

3 The Religious World of Jesus The Religious Context Why is the Jewish religious context of 1 st Century Palestine important to a study of Jesus? –Jesus was a faith-filled and profoundly committed Jew of his day –Students cannot fully understand Jesus and his message without an understanding of his Jewish heritage

4 The Religious World of Jesus Judaism: Special Places Jerusalem –City located in central Palestine –Political capital –Walled military fortress –Marketplace –Religious holy ground and pilgrimage destination

5 The Religious World of Jesus A panoramic photo of modern day Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives centered on the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount.

6 The Religious World of Jesus Modern day Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives centered on the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount.

7 The Religious World of Jesus Judaism: Special Places Temple –Built by King Solomon, c. 950 BC –Destroyed by the Babylonians, 587 BC –Re-Built by Faithful Remnant, BC –Expanded by Herod the Great, c. 20 BC-45 AD –Destroyed by the Romans, 70 AD Western Wall (Wailing Wall) remains

8 The Religious World of Jesus A modern day photograph of the Western Wall (Wailing Wall) of the Jerusalem Temple.

9 The Religious World of Jesus A modern day photograph of the Western Wall (Wailing Wall) of the Jerusalem Temple.

10 The Religious World of Jesus A modern day photograph of the Western Wall (Wailing Wall) of the Jerusalem Temple.

11 The Religious World of Jesus A modern day photograph of the Western Wall (Wailing Wall) of the Jerusalem Temple.

12 The Religious World of Jesus A modern day photograph of the Western Wall (Wailing Wall) of the Jerusalem Temple.

13 The Religious World of Jesus A modern day photograph of the Western Wall (Wailing Wall) of the Jerusalem Temple.

14 The Religious World of Jesus Judaism: Special Places Temple –Purpose Central location for communal prayer and worship Sacrificial offerings on a daily basis (for thanksgiving and forgiveness) and on major feasts (Yom Kippur, Passover) Marketplace –Leadership The Great Sanhedrin, especially the Sadducees

15 The Religious World of Jesus A model of Herod's Temple adjacent to the Shrine of the Book exhibit at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem.

16 The Religious World of Jesus A scholarly sketch of King Herod’s enlarged and rebuilt Temple and Temple Mount which was started in 19 BC and completed in 64 AD. From Secrets of Jerusalem’s Temple Mount by Leen Ritmeyer.

17 The Religious World of Jesus A scholarly sketch of King Herod’s enlarged and rebuilt Temple and Temple Mount which was started in 19 BC and completed in 64 AD. From Secrets of Jerusalem’s Temple Mount by Leen Ritmeyer.

18 The Religious World of Jesus A scholarly sketch of the modern day Dome of the Rock on Temple Mount in Jerusalem.

19 The Religious World of Jesus The Jerusalem Temple from the Blog of the Good Shepherd –http://binghamtongoodshepherd.blogspot.com/2009/03/ jerusalem-temple.htmlhttp://binghamtongoodshepherd.blogspot.com/2009/03/ jerusalem-temple.html A Model of Biblical Proportions: Man spends 30 years creating a model of Herod's Temple from The Telegraph (London, England) –http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/picturegalleries/howab outthat/ /A-model-of-biblical-proportions-man- spends-30-years-creating-a-model-of-Herods- Temple.htmlhttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/picturegalleries/howab outthat/ /A-model-of-biblical-proportions-man- spends-30-years-creating-a-model-of-Herods- Temple.html

20 The Religious World of Jesus Judaism: Special Places Synagogues –Started being built during the Babylonian Exile (587 BC) when communal worship in the Temple was impossible –Grew in importance after the Temple was destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD

21 The Religious World of Jesus The excavated remains of the Gamla Synagogue. It may have been built during the time of King Herod the Great during the 1st Century BC. It was destroyed by the Romans during the Jewish Revolt in 67 AD. From the English Standard Version (ESV) Study Bible.

22 The Religious World of Jesus A scholarly sketch of the Gamla Synagogue. It may have been built during the time of King Herod the Great during the 1 st Century BC. It was destroyed by the Romans during the Jewish Revolt in 67 AD. From the English Standard Version (ESV) Study Bible.

23 The Religious World of Jesus A scholarly, architectural overhead sketch of the Gamla Synagogue. It may have been built during the time of King Herod the Great during the 1 st Century BC. It was destroyed by the Romans during the Jewish Revolt in 67 AD. From the English Standard Version (ESV) Study Bible.

24 The Religious World of Jesus Judaism: Special Places Synagogues –Purpose Local paces for communal prayer and worship, especially on the Sabbath day Focus is on the Torah and the Stories of the Covenant relationship between God and the Chosen People of Israel School for education –Leadership The Scribes (rabbis) and Pharisees

25 The Religious World of Jesus The excavated remains of the Masada Synagogue. It was built by King Herod the Great during the 1 st Century BC. It was destroyed by the Romans during the Jewish Revolt in c. 70 AD. From architecture.info.

26 The Religious World of Jesus A scholarly, architectural overhead sketch of the Masada Synagogue. It was built by King Herod the Great during the 1 st Century BC. It was destroyed by the Romans during the Jewish Revolt in c. 70 AD. From

27 The Religious World of Jesus Judaism: Religious-Political Groups The Great Sanhedrin –The official governing body (“assembly” or “senate”) of the Jewish people –Position of the President filled by the High Priest –Seventy members were representatives of the priests, the scribes, and the elders –Both Pharisees and Sadducees held positions (Sadducees had much greater influence because of strong relationship with political powers) –Created laws, maintained a police force, controlled everything to do with religion

28 The Religious World of Jesus Judaism: Religious-Political Groups The Priestly Caste –Chosen by the Great Sanhedrin from the Tribe of Levi –Selected based on “respectability” (wealth or social prestige) –Very exclusive class often hated by the common people The High Priest –Special kind of authority (political) beyond role as spiritual leader –Anointed; lived in a palace; wore colorful and highly recognizable clothing –Appointment made by political masters of the country

29 The Religious World of Jesus Judaism: Religious-Political Groups The Scribes –Originated during the Babylonian Exile between 587 BC and 538 BC –Writers and jurists (interpreters of the Law) –Carefully studied the Law; passed judgment on those who broke it –“Doctors of the Law” – the most respected of the scribes –Rabbi (“master” or “teacher”) – teachers in the synagogue –Many (but not all) belonged to the Pharisaic party (commitment to the Law rather than the Temple) Tax Collectors (or Publicans) –Agents hired by Roman authorities to collect Temple tax and Roman tax –Expected to attain a certain quota of taxes; allowed to keep excess taxes –Despised and hated by fellow Jews

30 The Religious World of Jesus Judaism: Religious-Political Groups The Sadducees –Power base located in Jerusalem because of commitment to the Temple and sacrificial worship –Politically Liberal (willing to compromise with the people in power) –Conservative in Religion (accepted only the Torah as part of the Hebrew Scripture, rejected belief in the resurrection of the dead) –Lose power and die out after the destruction of Temple in 70 AD The Pharisees –Strict adherence to the Law –Politically Conservative (rejected compromise with Roman authorities) –More Liberal in Religious matters than the Sadducees (openness to new developments in Jewish thought, accepted belief in the afterlife) –Commitment to the Law (rather than the Temple) enabled Judaism to survive after the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD

31 The Religious World of Jesus Judaism: Religious-Political Groups The Essenes –Strong resistance to Jewish political leaders –Withdrew from Jewish society to observe strict religious traditions; maintained deep religious convictions of community life and asceticism The Zealots –Radical revolutionary group (from the working or laboring class) fighting for Jewish independence –Led open military rebellion against Roman authority between 66 AD and 70 AD

32 The Religious World of Jesus


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