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The Built Environment: West African Architecture : Mande, Nabdam, Ganvie, Bamileke; Igbo; and Afro-Brazilian To explore how the built environment shapes,

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Presentation on theme: "The Built Environment: West African Architecture : Mande, Nabdam, Ganvie, Bamileke; Igbo; and Afro-Brazilian To explore how the built environment shapes,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Built Environment: West African Architecture : Mande, Nabdam, Ganvie, Bamileke; Igbo; and Afro-Brazilian To explore how the built environment shapes, expresses or reflects the ecology, culture, and history of the various West African peoples -To demonstrate the variety and types of architecture that exists in the sub-region -To identify the diversity of materials used in the creation of African architecture in general

2 Mande Architecture Characteristics: Mud architecture with buttresses and parapets called toron Found throughout the Mande world—Mali, Ivory coast and Burkina Faso Structures include tombs of religious leaders, and Mosques Structures have minarets that towers above their roofs

3 Djenne Mosque, Djenne, Mali, adobe bricks, Completed in 1907 after the original 14 th century model

4 Village Mosque at Kawara, Ivory Coast, Mande Architecture

5 Tomb of Askia Mohammed, (1493-1529) Mali

6 Sankore Mosque at Timbuktu, Mali, Originally built in 1300 AD Periodically revamped Since the 14 th century

7 Mosque at Dougouba, Mali

8 Walata, Nabdam and Hausa Found in Mauritania; Ghana and Northern Nigeria Architecture made from stone and covered with mud Houses have two stories, flat roofs and interior courtyards Exterior walls painted with red ocher, doors and windows decorated with curvilinear patterns Interior of rooms painted with white and red motifs Motifs inspired by Arabic scripts and referred to as Arabesque Mostly painted by Women

9 Courtyard, Mauritania

10 Interior of the home of the Mayor of Walata with Arabesque decorations, Mauritania

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12 Façade of a Hausa compound decorated in low relief and paints, Zaria, Nigeria

13 Relief decorations on mud walls, Hausa Architecture, Zaria, Nigeria

14 Frafra Compound, Painted Mud walls, Northern Ghana

15 Frafra painted house, pigments on mud walls, Ghana

16 Granary with prefabricated roof Being raised into position

17 Ground plan of Frafra compound

18 Toguna—Men’s Meeting House--Mali

19 Dogon Toguna with carved pillars, Mali

20 Dogon Toguna, Carved wood, millet, stone and mud, Mali

21 Bamileke—Cameroon Made by the Bamileke peoples in the Cameroon Grassland Houses are constructed from palm reeds, bamboo, leaves and wood Wood used in creating wooden structures that adorn the exterior of the building Mat woven from vegetable fibers used to create movable partitions inside the house Thatched roofs, no windows, low doors and raised thresholds

22 Interior courtyard of the palace showing carved pillars Foumba, Bamum, Cameroon

23 Framework of a square house ready for thatching, Cameroon

24 Ganvie, Republic of Benin “The African Venice”

25 Ganvie Village, D.R. Benin

26 Stilt House, Ganvie Village, D.R. Benin

27 Ganvie Villiage, D.R. Benin

28 Afro-Portuguese Impulses : Baroque inspired architecture created by returnees Who settled in Lagos Nigeria, Freetown, Sierra Leone Characterized by elaborate façade with intricate decorative patterns Later evolved into animated/figurative images To communicate status

29 Central Mosque, Afro-Portuguese Baroque Architecture, Joao Baptist Da Costa, 1908-1913, Lagos, Nigeria

30 Adjavon House, Afro-Portuguese Baroque Architecture, Wydah, D.R. Benin

31 Americo-Liberian Architecture Created by returnees; missionaries and administrators Characteristics: Two-story structures Constructed of wood, tin/zinc Mostly on stilts with veranda surrounding the first two floors

32 Macon Hall House, Fortsville, Liberia, Late 19 th century. Wood and Tin

33 Igbo Mbari Houses Architecture created in response to urgent environmental and social issues/concerns A communal endeavor erected as shrines in veneration of Ala, the Earth Goddess Created with mud with representational images to depict scenes of everyday lives that might parody, critique, mirror, and or chronicle social events Sculptures are panted with uli decorative patterns

34 Igbo Mbari House, Ala flanked by her children, Igboland, Nigeria Painted mud, 20 th century

35 Igbo Mbari House to Ala, the Earth Goddess, Adobe and wood, 20 th century

36 Doors, Windows and House Posts

37 Door, Igbo, Wood, Early 20 th century

38 Door, Olowe, Wood, Yoruba 1910-1914

39 Verandah Posts, Olowe, Wood, Yoruba, 1910-1914


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