Presentation on theme: "Jack Holbrook and Miia Rannikmae"— Presentation transcript:
1Jack Holbrook and Miia Rannikmae Introducing an STL teaching thrustHow is the STL thrust expressed in school science curricula?Jack Holbrook and Miia Rannikmae
2QuestionsWhat is the current purpose of teaching science (or science subjects) ?What should it be ?If there is a difference?What can be done to eliminate this ?
3The agenda Thus let us consider 1. Goals of science education from a scientific perspective2. Goals of science education from an education perspective3. The concerns in the teaching of ‘school science’4. How might the concerns be addressed?
4Traditional School Science Science education in school has remained relatively traditional.The emphasis is put on:conceptual knowledge, grouped into distinct disciplinary strands,the use of key, abstract concepts to interpret and explain relatively standard problems;the treatment of context as mainly subsidiary to concepts, andthe use of standard practical work to illustrate, or verify principles and practices.
5What is science education for? Reflections on 21st century strive to:Go beyond ‘science for the scientists’ versus ‘science for society.’Include ‘education for employability’ and promoting interest in science-related careers plus the development of attributes for this.So where is the emphasis – a base for future studies; responsible citizen; preparation for a career?
6Purposes of Science Education in the compulsory years Which is it? Or is it - all of these?A Cultural purposeA Democratic purposeAn Economic purposeA Personal development purposeA Utilitarian purpose(Symington & Tytler, 2004, p. 1411)
7Cultural purpose: all members of society develop an understanding of the scope of science and its application in contemporary culture.Democratic purpose: students develop a confidence about science which would enable them to be involved in scientific and technological issues as they impact on society.Economic purpose: the number and quality of people with strong backgrounds in science and technology in business and public life, as well as in science and technology, that are needed to secure the country’s future prosperity.Personal development purpose: all members of society benefit from the contribution that the values and skills of science can make to their ability to learn and operate successfully throughout life.Utilitarian purpose: all members of society have sufficient knowledge of science to enable them to operate effectively and critically in activities where science can make a contribution to their personal wellbeing (Symington & Tytler, 2004, p )
8Three Possible Justifications for Why Teach “Science” within Science Education 1 Science has news for us (We can gain information)2. Although Science does not know all the answers, it aids understanding of the world around is (Science is based on observation and prediction. It is not an act of faith)3. Science offers competence and technical know-how (Scientific skills)
9TrendsThe trends in science education can be considered and further explored from:A science perspective (as a subject for learning)An educational perspective (the students learning needs)
10For the future scientist Studies show (for all and even future scientists) the need to:communicate effectively to multiple audiences;be able to work in multi-disciplinary teams, having well-developed analytical thinking skills;understand the social and ethical context in which they work, andhave developed the desire and ability to be lifelong learners.
11Teacher viewsIt has been argued that the continuing resistance to curriculum change throughout the 20th century has largely been due to the allegiances of teachers, and to some extent the general public, to a version of science education as disciplinary knowledge and the development of expertise (the economic viewpoint).We need to remember that teachers’ professional identities are forged through their experiences from school and university science, with very few having practised science in a research or professional sense (Tytler, 2007).
12Goals of Science Education From a scientists perspective , what is the purpose in teaching science? Science teaching is seen as helping students to :Acquire a broad understanding of important ideas and explanatory frameworks.Sustain and develop curiosity about the natural world.Develop confidence in an ability to inquire into its behaviour.
13Goals of Science Education (continued) But why not to: . appreciate why scientific ideas are valued;appreciate an underlying rationale for making decisions (in science);able to understand and respond critically to media reports;feel empowered to hold and express a personal point of view on science related issues;able to acquire further knowledge when required.
14The DilemmaThe dilemma, then, is how to balance the need to teach established scientific knowledge, with the need to represent science as it is practised or has value in contemporary settings.One approach is to select socially relevant, interdisciplinary topics, and then ‘weave scientific understanding and logic’ into the cultural, social, historical, social and ethical perspectives.
15The World Conference on Science The World Conference on Science drew attention to the ethical and moral values demanded of scientists.“Ethics and responsibility of science should be an integral part of the education and training of all scientists. It is important to instil in students a positive attitude towards reflections, alertness and awareness of the ethical dilemmas they may encounter in their professional life.”Participants at the conference suggested Science Curricula should include science ethics, as well as training in history, philosophy and the cultural impact of science.
16Implications for science education. If democratic values, tolerance and a culture of peace, and ethical values related to science are to be developed, then science education at the school level must surely play an integral part in this. (VALUES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT)And more and more we can be expected to be called upon to solve scientific and technological problems. Thus students need to be able to recognise a problem, put forward an approach to solving the problem, carry out the investigation, analyse the outcomes and then put forward a solution (i.e. be a PROBLEM SOLVER).
17Relevant Goals for School Science Curricula Do you agree these need to promote :conceptual science knowledge and problem solving skills.an awareness of what is science and how science has progressed.the development of democratic and ethical values, and instilling tolerance, a culture of peace and social responsibility.PLUS to play a role in developing students’ abilities to communicate their learning from science.AND
18Relevance Goals for School Science Curricula (contd) Encompass positive attitudes towards the learning of sciencePromote the making of decisions geared to societal concerns e.g. ensuring sustainable development and the development of social values where science is involved.Help develop the individual students (e.g. promote creativity, initiative, inquisitiveness, perseverance, safety awareness/responsibility)
19In Hong KongThe Goal of Education have been stipulated under the headings:Intellectual development; Communicative ability; Social and Moral responsibility; Personal and Physical development; Aesthetic awareness.It is suggested the goals of science education can be placed under the same headings.
20Goals for Science Education Alternatively, the goals can be expressed in terms of five major components that underline the organisation of curriculum and instruction :1. Empirical knowledge of chemical, physical andbiological systems. 2. Scientific methods of investigation. 3. Social development or achieving the aspirationsof society. 4. Personal development of the student. 5. Career awareness.
21A Science Education Philosophy Acquiring the Nature of ScienceThe Goals ofScience EducationSocial Development (Cooperative, Leadership Skill, Social Values)Individual Development (Intellectual, Aptitudes, Attitudes)
22The Dilemma But where is the emphasis? What is required for enhancing STL?Is the emphasis SCIENCE (Inquiry teaching)?Is the emphasis EDUCATION (Generic Skills)?
23The contrast facing Science Teachers In the BLUE corner -the developing trends in science teaching when SCIENCE is the focusIn the RED corner –the developing trends in science teaching when EDUCATION is taken to be the true focusDo you prefer the developing trends in science education viewed from the blue corner or the red corner ?
24Trends taking place in teaching when Science is seen as the vehicle for learning From (old view):To (a more modern view):Pure science knowledgee.g. properties of gas, definition of force, pressure, etc.Relevance in everyday lifee.g. why a preference for high voltage transmission lines in the electrical power industryLower order learning- emphasis on gaining information (memorising) and understanding.More emphasis on higher order learning– analytical thinking, problem solving, making judgements.Teacher centred approach to knowledge acquisition.Practical work of the recipe type (like cookery)Teaching approached from inquiry and values-in-society perspective(largely student centred/investigative or through discussion)Science as a body of knowledgeScience as a way of thinking & process - understanding the nature of science
25Trends that have taken place when Education is seen as the focus of learning From (old perception)To (new view)Science taught to enable students to become scientistsScience taught for its use in society &/or for responsible citizenshipScience emphasising “basic” or “fundamental” (19th Century?) cognitive conceptsIncreased emphasis on relevance, argumentation, working together, socio-scientific meta-cognitionScience approached as an isolated school subjectInter-disciplinarity between school subjects (natural science and social science)Teacher centred approach, limited classroom feedbackStudent centred approaches for maximising student feedback and developing leadership/self-disciplineEmphasis on summative tests and examinations (assessment of learning)More attention to formative on-going assessment (assessment for learning)
26Summarising: the red or the blue SCIENCE through EDUCATIONThe emphasis is on the scienceThe target is the specialistEDUCATION through SCIENCEThe emphasis is on the educationThe target is all students
27Science through Education Education through Science Learn fundamental science knowledge, concepts, theories and laws.Learn science knowledge and concepts important for understanding and handling socio-scientific issues within society.Undertake the processes of science through inquiry learning as part of the development of learning to be a scientist.Undertake investigatory scientific problem solving to better understand the science background related to socio-scientific issues within society.Gain an appreciation of the nature of science from a scientist’s point of view.Gain an appreciation of the nature of science from a societal point of view.Undertake practical work and appreciate the work of scientists.Develop personal skills related to creativity, initiative, safe working, etc.Develop positive attitudes towards science and scientists.Develop positive attitudes towards science as a major factor in scientific endeavours.Acquire communicative skills related to oral, written and symbolic/tabular/ graphical formatsAcquire communicative skills related to oral, written and symbolic/tabular/ graphical formats to better express scientific ideas in a social context.Undertake decision making in tackling scientific issues.Undertake socio-scientific decision making related to issues arising from the society.Apply the uses of science to society and appreciate ethical issues faced by scientists.Develop social values related to becoming a responsible citizen and undertaking science-related careers.
28Education through science promotes STL (a) ensuring relevance of school science (develop intrinsic motivation based on the students’ world).(b) incorporating science into social decision making (school science is socio-scientific in nature)teaching students problem solving/inquiry skills (reaching scientific solutions that can then be transferred to issues and concerns in society)(d) guiding students to gain an understanding of the nature of science (appreciate what science can and cannot do; how it can be carried out, what its limitations are; the value of the scientific enterprise; science as a social endeavour).
30The Issue with Science Education For the most part, science education is (EC, 2007)Not relevantBoringToo abstractDifficultLet is consider a possible ‘Education through Science’ way forward.
31The 3 stage model - an approach to the teaching of science Consolidation of scientific learning through transference to the contextual frame and promoting socio-scientific decision making.Science learning is initiated by a familiar context as the frame of reference, It is linked to a need in the eyes of students.Meeting the science learning need by scientific problem solving learning, giving due attention to NOS.In a science context (non-social)In a social context involving scienceIn a socio-scientific context
32The 3 stage modelStage THE INITIAL MOTIVATIONAL (CONTEXT-BASED) STAGEAll modules start within a context by means of a scenario.Stage 1 is socio-scientific, but recognises a science learning component (& hence a need to determine students’ prior science knowledge).Stage 1 strives for relevance but being familiar to studentsStage 1 is intriguing to students by address an issue or a concern that s meaningful to students(Modules are NOT designed to be revision).
33Stage 2 THE IBSE and DE-CONTEXTUALISED STAGE (acquiring new science knowledge and skills through an inquiry learning approach & maintaining positive attitudes)The teaching engages students in inquiry learning and is expected to engage students in SCIENTIFIC PROBLEM SOLVING.If PROBLEM SOLVNG IS THE SKILL, then INQUIRY LEARNING IS THE APPROACHMost teaching in science education is associated with this stage.THIS IS THE MAJOR STAGE FOR ACQUIRING NEW SCIENCE CONCEPTS & SKILLS
34Stage 3 THE CONSOLIDATION RE- CONTEXTUALISED, SOCIO- SCIENTIFIC, DECISION-MAKING STAGE The learning needs a science consolidation stage.Students are expected to learn to associate the science they have acquired with society.Students engage in socio-scientific decision making (gaining competencies through utilising the acquired science in a new situation).
35A flowchart illustrating the learning from stage 1 to stage 3