Presentation on theme: "Erosion and Weathering. Upcoming tests December 28 Term Paper January 4 th, 2011 (Questions???)"— Presentation transcript:
Erosion and Weathering
Upcoming tests December 28 Term Paper January 4 th, 2011 (Questions???)
erosion and weathering are part of the forces of gradation which do battle with tectonic forces Erosion: Denudation by wind, water, or ice, which dislodges, dissolves or removes surface material Denudation: any process that wears away or rearanges landforms. Weathering: either disintegrate rock into mineral particles or dissolve them in water. Tectonic Forces: Strive to build up rock structures
Strive to build up rock structures
strive to bring rock structures to a level or a uniform slope; this can be done in two ways- -by tearing down (i.e. degradation or erosion) or filling in (i.e. aggradation or deposition)
erosion can be divided into two processes: a) the breaking up of rock masses (i.e. weathering ) b) the carrying away of the weathered rock fragments (i.e. transportation )
weathering, transportation, and deposition Deposition is the geological process by which material is added to a landform or land mass
When rock is broken and disintegrated without any chemical alteration. By, breaking up rock, physical weathering produces more surface area on which chemical weathering can operate Page of Text
When water freezes, its volume expands as much as 9%. This mechanical force is called frost action Frost: Expanding..... Thawing: Contracting Causes rocks to split apart
tree roots, for example, growing down into cracks can exert powerful forces - even mosses and lichens can help to split rocks apart Lichens:Any of many symbiotic organisms, being associations of fungi and algae
Salt- Crystal growth Dry Weather draws moisture to the surface of rocks Water evaporates, dissolved minerals in the water grow crystals The crystals enlarge and exert a force great enough to break up the rock P.423
Exfoliation - in humid climates, running water tends to round off the surface features causing the "skin" of the rock to peel off - this is also an important form of weathering in desert areas where the daily temperature range can be high
Exfoliation Dome: A dome shaped feature of weathering, produced by the response of granite to the overburden removal process. See page 424 for image
is the breakdown of rock into smaller particles due to such factors as freezing and thawing, release of pressure, water absorption, salt crystal formation, landmass uplift, expansion and contraction from the sun or fire, plant root growth, actions of animals, abrasion, or other means that do not directly affect the rock's chemistry.
the decay of rock through actual chemical change in the composition of its minerals - most common in warm and humid climates where both water and heat speed up chemical reactions
occurs especially with rocks containing salt minerals - water is absorbed into the internal structure of the rock causing swelling and making it vulnerable to breakdown due to pressure and potential chemical structure changes - a physio-chemical process eg gypsum results from water being added to anhydrite (CaSO4)
It converts feldspar, into clay and silica Feldspar: a group of rock forming minerals which make up 60% of the earths crust Silica: Sand
hydrolysis - occurs especially with granite - causes rock to whiten (erodes slowly) - creates clay Breaks down minerals in rocks Hydration: Water combines with minerals in the rock, the hydrolysis process involves water and elements in chemical reactions to produce different compounds
Certain metallic elements combine with oxygen to form oxides. creates rusty red rock occurs especially with rock containing iron nitrate erodes and forms soil See Page 426: Pictures A and B
occurs with limestone (easiest to erode) - ground water absorbs carbon dioxide to form a slightly acidic solution - destroys joints (joint: line of weakness in a rock) and bedding planes to form karst topographykarst topography
Karst: A word from Slovenia which means “Dissolvable rock” Topography: the surface shape and features themselves Page
Karst is a distinctive topography in which the landscape is largely shaped by the dissolving action of water on carbonate bedrock (usually limestone or marble).
For limestone landscape to develop into karst topography there are several conditions: Limestone formation must contain 80% or more calcium carbonate Complex patterns of joints are needed for water to form routes to subsurface driainage channels
There must be an aerated(containing air) zone between the ground surface and the water table Vegetation cover is required
Karst occurs in Arid areas. Arid: Lacking moisture, especially having insufficient rainfall to support trees or woody plants
Sinkholes: Nearly circular depression created by the weathering of karst landscapes with subterranean drainage. Also, known as a doline. Subterranean: underground structures, both natural and man-made. Ex> Cave
A complex landscape in which sinkholes is referred to as cockpit karst.
Any unit movement of a body of material, propelled and controlled by gravity Also known As Mass Wasting: the downhill of weathered materials resulting from the pull of gravity.
A persistent gradual mass movement of surface soil is called soil creep Caused by freeze-thaw cycle See page 439 of Geo Text
Solifluction: is used to describe a slow downhill flow of water-saturated rock and soil materials Solifluction common in cold climates Ground beneath is permanently frozen Can cause Avalanches
The simplest form of slide is called a rock slide Debris Slides: are caused when loose rock and soil in steeply sloping terrain are shaken loose by an earthquake, river or glacial erosion. Such slides move rapidly downhill A block of soil that makes a rotational slip along a concave surface is known as a slump.
High Mountains Frost Shattering Thumbling Rubble known as talus or scree Talus: Bigger rocks Scree: smaller debris...Basically the same thing