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Weathering. Weathering What is weathering? Weathering is the breakdown and alteration of rocks and minerals near or at the Earth’s surface. The two.

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Presentation on theme: "Weathering. Weathering What is weathering? Weathering is the breakdown and alteration of rocks and minerals near or at the Earth’s surface. The two."— Presentation transcript:

1 Weathering

2 Weathering

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4 What is weathering? Weathering is the breakdown and alteration of rocks and minerals near or at the Earth’s surface. The two types of weathering are: 1. physical or mechanical weathering 2. chemical weathering

5 Physical Weathering the breaking of rocks into smaller fragments without changing their mineral or chemical composition joints are cracks in rocks formed by tectonic forces

6 Physical Weathering 1. frost action – rocks break as water freezes in cracks Click for animation!

7 Physical Weathering 2. abrasion or impact weathering – rocks break down when exposed to agents of erosion

8 Physical Weathering 2. abrasion or impact weathering – rocks break down when exposed to agents of erosion

9 Physical Weathering 3. pressure release – rocks fracture as they expand when exposed from beneath the Earth’s surface

10 Physical Weathering 4. insolation weathering – rocks break due to exposure of extremes of temperatures resulting in repeated expansions and contractions Click for animation! exfoliation – outer layers of rock peel off following pressure release or insolation weathering

11 Physical Weathering 5. biological weathering a. rocks break as plant roots grow in cracks b. rocks and minerals break down as animals burrow and move Click for animation!

12 Chemical Weathering the minerals or chemicals in rocks are altered and new substances are formed water is needed for chemical reactions to take place

13 Chemical Weathering 1. leaching – water dissolves chemicals in rocks and washes them away iron leaching

14 Chemical Weathering 2. hydration - certain minerals absorb water and produce new substances (ex. feldspar + water → kaolinite, a type of clay used in pottery) Click for animation!

15 Chemical Weathering 3. oxidation – certain minerals combine with oxygen in air or water forming oxides (ex. iron + oxygen → rust) Click for animation!

16 Chemical Weathering 4. carbonation weathering – rocks with calcite (ex. limestone) are dissolved away by carbonic acid produced from water combining with CO 2

17 Chemical Weathering 5. acid rain – sulfur and nitrogen oxide air pollutants combine with rain droplets forming acids that break down rocks

18 Chemical Weathering 6. biological weathering a. chelation – organisms such as lichens and moss produce acids that break down rocks

19 Chemical Weathering 6. biological weathering b. organisms can influence environmental factors that may enhance weathering (ex. moisture and pH)

20 Rate of Weathering 1.The bigger and more numerous the joints in a rock, the faster is the rate of weathering. 2.Climate affects the rate of weathering. a. Frost action depends on rain, snowfall and temperature ranges. b. Chemical weathering is enhanced in humid climates.

21 Rate of Weathering 3.The mineral composition of a rock may make it more or less susceptible to weathering. a. Quartz is resistant to both physical and chemical weathering. b. Calcite is easily dissolved away by carbonic acid.

22 Products of Weathering 1.rock fragments 2.rock formations 3.limestone caves 4.soil 5.sediment 6.nutritional minerals for plants 7.solutes in bodies of water

23 Exercise

24 Physical or chemical?

25 Vocabulary matching abrasion chelation exfoliation oxidation

26 Vocabulary matching abrasion chelation exfoliation oxidation

27 Vocabulary matching abrasion chelation exfoliation oxidation

28 Vocabulary matching abrasion chelation exfoliation oxidation

29 Reflection: Watch the following slideshow in silence. Look at each picture. Be sensitive to the feelings and ideas each one evokes. Choose the picture that made the most impact on you. Describe it. How did it make you feel? What thoughts and ideas came to you? Write a short reflection (5 to 10 sentences) about it.

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40 The End


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