2IntroductionDENUDATION refers to the wearing down and stripping and leveling of the earths surface.They are also gradational because they grade/level the earth’s surface.2 processes: weathering and erosion.Weathering is the breakdown of rock and minerals.Erosion is the movement of these weathered materials.
3ErosionThe removal of weathered sediment or rock by the forces of wind, water and ice.This is a two-fold process:- Transportation which is the movement of sediment or weathered material away from its source to another location.- Deposition which is dropping or settling of sediments.
4WeatheringWeathering is the breakdown of rocks and minerals by physical pressures and chemical reactions.There are two types : physical and chemical.
5Physical WeatheringPhysical weathering is the breakdown of rock and minerals by mechanical stresses.4 types to be discussed…Physical weathering prevails in: cold and wet climateshigh altitudes and high latitudeshot/dry regions
61. Physical Weathering - Frost fracture water gets into the cracks of rocks, freezes and expands causing rocks to crack.
72. Physical Weathering – Heat or Thermal Expansion Repeated daily heating and cooling of rock results in expansion during heating and contraction during cooling.Different materials expand and contract at different rates, resulting in stresses along mineral boundaries.
93. Physical Weathering - Exfoliation is the breaking off of rocks in curved sheets or slabs along joints that are parallel to the ground surface.Most commonly the release of stress upon a rock occurs when overlying rock is eroded away .
11Physical Weathering – Plants and animals ROOTS grown into the rockExpansion due to root growth.Animals that burrow in the ground.Could be considered Biological weathering!!!!
12Chemical WeatheringChemical weathering is the breakdown of rocks and minerals by chemical reactions and usually involves the action of rainwater.This involves three processes:
131. Chemical Weathering – Solution/Dissolution The formation of solutions as rainwater absorbs CO2 , SO2, and other chemicals from the atmosphere along with organic acids from the soilWhich then reacts with rock and minerals causing some to dissolve and move away.
142. Chemical Weathering – Hydrolysis Hydrolysis like the first process involves the minerals in solution.In this case, carbonic acid reacts with silicates in some rocks leaving a soft clay from which potassium, sodium and magnesium are subsequently leached.
153. Chemical Weathering – Oxidation Oxidation is the reaction of metallic minerals to oxygen (mainly in water.This results in the formation of oxides, which tend to be softer than the original mineral.For example, rust on iron.
16Relate environmental conditions & rate of physical & chemical weathering Freezing temperatures and moisture?Frost FracturesVariation/fluctuations in H/C temperatures?Thermal ExpansionPresence of vegetation?Roots expanding cracksHeavy precipitation?Accelerates dissolving of rocks/minerals
17Relate environmental conditions & rate of physical & chemical weathering CO2 and SO2 in the humid air?Creates solutions that dissolve some rock and mineralsO2, Moisture and metallic minerals?Chemical reaction-oxidation, ie. rustCarbonic Acid?Hydrolysis, transform rock into soft clay-like..leach awayHigh Temperatures?Accelerates oxidationOceans and Salt?