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Sub-Saharan Africa, Striving for Independence: Africa, India, and Latin America, Chapter 30.

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Presentation on theme: "Sub-Saharan Africa, Striving for Independence: Africa, India, and Latin America, Chapter 30."— Presentation transcript:

1 Striving for Independence: Africa, India, and Latin America, 1900-1949 Chapter 30

2 Sub-Saharan Africa,

3 Colonial Africa: Economic and Social Changes
Very few Europeans Algeria, Kenya, S. Africa Dominated economy Benefited Europeans Forced labor Little pay Poor health racism Racism in cities;

4 Religious and Political Changes
During colonial period many Africans converted to ___; except in _____. Islam spread through the influence of: Contradiction of liberal views Christianity; ethiopia--merchants

5 Nationalist movements
Blaise Diagne in Senegal W.E.B. Dubois Marcus Garvey Little signifigance until after ww2; returned with new radical ideas-

6 The Indian Independence Movement, 1905-1947

7 The Land and the People Land Classes English
Fertile land led to increase in population 250 million to 389 million, from 1900 to 1941 Deforestation and declining amount of farm land per family Classes Peasants, property owners, and urban craftmen, traders, and workers English Common language of middle class;

8 Religion Hinduism Islam Northwest and eastern Bengal
Majority; 25% dominated nw and east bengal

9 British Rule and Indian Nationalism
Indian Civil Service Manipulated the introduction of technology into India in order to protect the development of radical politics, and to maximize the benefits to Britain and to themselves. Ruled india with a viceroy;

10 Indian National Congress 1885 All-India Muslim League 1906
Hindu All-India Muslim League 1906 Muslim British resisted industrialization Jamshedpur in 1911 Pramatha Nath Bose Jamseji Tata Both natinalist groups to fight racism, two independent movements; jamshedpur- fisrt indian steel mill, became a symbol of national pride

11 Increase in tension in 1918-1919
Flu influenza epidemic Massacre of 10,000 protestors

12 Mahatma Gandhi and Militant Nonviolence
Mohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi ( ) Lawyer S. Africa Indian National Congress Ahimsa Satyagraha Quasi-religious aura Political and public relations tactician “Walk to the Sea” Fasts/hunger strikes Arrests Search for truth;

13 India Moves Toward Independence
In 1920s the British slowly began to give Indians control. Education, economy, and public works Taxes Jawaharlal Hehru Support from wealthy businessmen World War 2 Division Helped undertake a degree of industrialization; sucessor of Ghandi in the indian national congress; war effort, INC opposed war, minority joined japanese

14 Partition and Independence
Pakistan Muslim League’s leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah ( ) Partition into two states segregated

15 The Mexican Revolution, 1910-1940

16 Mexico in 1910 Geography Resentment by poor Numerous foreign invasions
85% land controlled by: Majority of peasants were Indian and mestizo Resentment by poor Forced in wage labor, debt, and relocation Wealthy families of spanish origin; rich good land v.

17 By 1910 General Porfirio Diaz had ruled for 30 years.
Modernization Discrimination against nonwhite majority of Mexicans Decline of standard of living

18 Revolution and Civil War, 1911-1920
Mexican Revolution Series of ambitious social classes Constitutionalists Est. 2 million casualties Agrarian reforms Social programs Appealed to workers and middle class

19 The Revolution Institutionalized, 1920-1940
The Revolution lost momentum in the 1920s, but it had given representatives of rural communities, unionized workers, and public employees a voice in government. National Revolutionary Party, Mexican Revolutionary Party President Lazaro Cardenas No generals Redistributed land Government schools Expropriated foreign owned companies oil

20 When Cardena’s term ended in 1940 Mexico was still a land of poor farmers with a small industrial base. Nonetheless, the Mexican Revolution had established a stable political system, tamed the military and the Catholic Church, and laid the foundations for the later industrialization of Mexico.

21 Argentina and Brazil,

22 The Transformation of Argentina
Introduction of railroads and refrigerator ships transformed Argentina from exporter of hides to meat. Oligarquia Export agricultural goods Import manufactured goods One of worlds largest producers of wheat.; small group pf wealthy land owners,

23 Brazil and Argentina, to 1929
Middle class Exploitation of peasants after WW1 Industrialization European and U.S. companies

24 The Depression and the Vargas Regime in Brazil
Authoritarian regimes Brazil Getulio Vargas Import substitution industrialization Beneficial to urban workers Unequal distribution of wealth Fascist state Overthrown in 1954 Increased import taxes and industrialization;

25 Argentina After 1930 In 1943 Colonel Juan Peron est government that modeled Nazi Germany Populist dictatorship Rapid industrialization Lavish spending Depleted capital gained during war Failure to create a stable government

26 Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil: a Comparison
Mexico underwent a traumatic and profound social revolution. Argentina and Brazil remained under the leadership of conservative regimes that were devoted to the interests of the wealthy land workers and which were periodically overturned by military coups and populits demagogues.

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