3Colonial Africa: Economic and Social Changes Very few EuropeansAlgeria, Kenya, S. AfricaDominated economyBenefited EuropeansForced laborLittle payPoor healthracismRacism in cities;
4Religious and Political Changes During colonial period many Africans converted to ___; except in _____.Islam spread through the influence of:Contradiction of liberal viewsChristianity; ethiopia--merchants
5Nationalist movements Blaise Diagne in SenegalW.E.B. DuboisMarcus GarveyLittle signifigance until after ww2; returned with new radical ideas-
7The Land and the People Land Classes English Fertile land led to increase in population250 million to 389 million, from 1900 to 1941Deforestation and declining amount of farm land per familyClassesPeasants, property owners, and urban craftmen, traders, and workersEnglishCommon language of middle class;
8Religion Hinduism Islam Northwest and eastern Bengal Majority; 25% dominated nw and east bengal
9British Rule and Indian Nationalism Indian Civil ServiceManipulated the introduction of technology into India in order to protect the development of radical politics, and to maximize the benefits to Britain and to themselves.Ruled india with a viceroy;
10Indian National Congress 1885 All-India Muslim League 1906 HinduAll-India Muslim League 1906MuslimBritish resisted industrializationJamshedpur in 1911Pramatha Nath BoseJamseji TataBoth natinalist groups to fight racism, two independent movements; jamshedpur- fisrt indian steel mill, became a symbol of national pride
11Increase in tension in 1918-1919 Flu influenza epidemicMassacre of 10,000 protestors
12Mahatma Gandhi and Militant Nonviolence Mohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi ( )LawyerS. AfricaIndian National CongressAhimsaSatyagrahaQuasi-religious auraPolitical and publicrelations tactician“Walk to the Sea”Fasts/hunger strikesArrestsSearch for truth;
13India Moves Toward Independence In 1920s the British slowly began to give Indians control.Education, economy, and public worksTaxesJawaharlal HehruSupport from wealthybusinessmenWorld War 2DivisionHelped undertake a degree of industrialization; sucessor of Ghandi in the indian national congress; war effort, INC opposed war, minority joined japanese
14Partition and Independence PakistanMuslim League’s leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah ( )Partition into two statessegregated
16Mexico in 1910 Geography Resentment by poor Numerous foreign invasions 85% land controlled by:Majority of peasants wereIndian and mestizoResentment by poorForced in wage labor,debt, and relocationWealthy families of spanish origin; rich good land v.
17By 1910 General Porfirio Diaz had ruled for 30 years. ModernizationDiscrimination against nonwhite majority of MexicansDecline of standard of living
18Revolution and Civil War, 1911-1920 Mexican RevolutionSeries of ambitious social classesConstitutionalistsEst. 2 million casualtiesAgrarian reformsSocial programsAppealed to workersand middle class
19The Revolution Institutionalized, 1920-1940 The Revolution lost momentum in the 1920s, but it had given representatives of rural communities, unionized workers, and public employees a voice in government.National Revolutionary Party, Mexican Revolutionary PartyPresident Lazaro CardenasNo generalsRedistributed landGovernment schoolsExpropriated foreign owned companiesoil
20When Cardena’s term ended in 1940 Mexico was still a land of poor farmers with a small industrial base. Nonetheless, the Mexican Revolution had established a stable political system, tamed the military and the Catholic Church, and laid the foundations for the later industrialization of Mexico.
22The Transformation of Argentina Introduction of railroads and refrigerator ships transformed Argentina from exporter of hides to meat.OligarquiaExport agricultural goodsImport manufactured goodsOne of worlds largest producers of wheat.; small group pf wealthy land owners,
23Brazil and Argentina, to 1929 Middle classExploitation of peasants after WW1IndustrializationEuropean and U.S. companies
24The Depression and the Vargas Regime in Brazil Authoritarian regimesBrazilGetulio VargasImport substitution industrializationBeneficial to urban workersUnequal distribution of wealthFascist stateOverthrown in 1954Increased import taxes and industrialization;
25Argentina After 1930In 1943 Colonel Juan Peron est government that modeled Nazi GermanyPopulist dictatorshipRapid industrializationLavish spendingDepleted capital gainedduring warFailure to create a stablegovernment
26Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil: a Comparison Mexico underwent a traumatic and profound social revolution. Argentina and Brazil remained under the leadership of conservative regimes that were devoted to the interests of the wealthy land workers and which were periodically overturned by military coups and populits demagogues.