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Striving for Independence: Africa, India, and Latin America, 1900- 1949 Chapter 30.

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Presentation on theme: "Striving for Independence: Africa, India, and Latin America, 1900- 1949 Chapter 30."— Presentation transcript:

1 Striving for Independence: Africa, India, and Latin America, 1900- 1949 Chapter 30

2 Sub-Saharan Africa, 1900- 1945

3 Colonial Africa: Economic and Social Changes Very few Europeans Very few Europeans Algeria, Kenya, S. Africa Algeria, Kenya, S. Africa Dominated economy Dominated economy Benefited Europeans Benefited Europeans Forced labor Forced labor Little pay Little pay Poor health Poor health racism racism

4 Religious and Political Changes During colonial period many Africans converted to ___; except in _____. During colonial period many Africans converted to ___; except in _____. Islam spread through the influence of: Islam spread through the influence of: Contradiction of liberal views Contradiction of liberal views

5 Nationalist movements Nationalist movements Blaise Diagne in Senegal Blaise Diagne in Senegal W.E.B. Dubois W.E.B. Dubois Marcus Garvey Marcus Garvey

6 The Indian Independence Movement, 1905-1947

7 The Land and the People Land Land Fertile land led to increase in population Fertile land led to increase in population 250 million to 389 million, from 1900 to 1941 250 million to 389 million, from 1900 to 1941 Deforestation and declining amount of farm land per family Deforestation and declining amount of farm land per family Classes Classes Peasants, property owners, and urban craftmen, traders, and workers Peasants, property owners, and urban craftmen, traders, and workers English English

8 Religion Religion Hinduism Hinduism Islam Islam Northwest and eastern Bengal Northwest and eastern Bengal

9 British Rule and Indian Nationalism Indian Civil Service Indian Civil Service Manipulated the introduction of technology into India in order to protect the development of radical politics, and to maximize the benefits to Britain and to themselves. Manipulated the introduction of technology into India in order to protect the development of radical politics, and to maximize the benefits to Britain and to themselves.

10 Indian National Congress 1885 Indian National Congress 1885 Hindu Hindu All-India Muslim League 1906 All-India Muslim League 1906 Muslim Muslim British resisted industrialization British resisted industrialization Jamshedpur in 1911 Jamshedpur in 1911 Pramatha Nath Bose Pramatha Nath Bose Jamseji Tata Jamseji Tata

11 Increase in tension in 1918-1919 Increase in tension in 1918-1919 Flu influenza epidemic Flu influenza epidemic Massacre of 10,000 protestors Massacre of 10,000 protestors

12 Mahatma Gandhi and Militant Nonviolence Mohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi (1869-1948) Mohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi (1869-1948) Lawyer Lawyer S. Africa S. Africa Indian National Congress Indian National Congress Ahimsa Ahimsa Satyagraha Satyagraha Quasi-religious aura Quasi-religious aura Political and public Political and public relations tactician “Walk to the Sea” “Walk to the Sea” Fasts/hunger strikes Fasts/hunger strikes Arrests Arrests

13 India Moves Toward Independence In 1920s the British slowly began to give Indians control. In 1920s the British slowly began to give Indians control. Education, economy, and public works Education, economy, and public works Taxes Taxes Jawaharlal Hehru Jawaharlal Hehru Support from wealthy Support from wealthybusinessmen World War 2 World War 2 Division Division

14 Partition and Independence Pakistan Pakistan Muslim League’s leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) Muslim League’s leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) Partition into two states Partition into two states segregated segregated

15 The Mexican Revolution, 1910-1940

16 Mexico in 1910 Geography Geography Numerous foreign invasions Numerous foreign invasions 85% land controlled by: 85% land controlled by: Majority of peasants were Majority of peasants were Indian and mestizo Resentment by poor Resentment by poor Forced in wage labor, Forced in wage labor, debt, and relocation

17 By 1910 General Porfirio Diaz had ruled for 30 years. By 1910 General Porfirio Diaz had ruled for 30 years. Modernization Modernization Discrimination against nonwhite majority of Mexicans Discrimination against nonwhite majority of Mexicans Decline of standard of living Decline of standard of living

18 Revolution and Civil War, 1911-1920 Mexican Revolution Mexican Revolution Series of ambitious social classes Series of ambitious social classes Constitutionalists Constitutionalists Est. 2 million casualties Est. 2 million casualties Agrarian reforms Agrarian reforms Social programs Social programs Appealed to workers Appealed to workers and middle class

19 The Revolution Institutionalized, 1920-1940 The Revolution lost momentum in the 1920s, but it had given representatives of rural communities, unionized workers, and public employees a voice in government. The Revolution lost momentum in the 1920s, but it had given representatives of rural communities, unionized workers, and public employees a voice in government. National Revolutionary Party, Mexican Revolutionary Party National Revolutionary Party, Mexican Revolutionary Party President Lazaro Cardenas President Lazaro Cardenas No generals No generals Redistributed land Redistributed land Government schools Government schools Expropriated foreign owned companies Expropriated foreign owned companies

20 When Cardena’s term ended in 1940 Mexico was still a land of poor farmers with a small industrial base. Nonetheless, the Mexican Revolution had established a stable political system, tamed the military and the Catholic Church, and laid the foundations for the later industrialization of Mexico. When Cardena’s term ended in 1940 Mexico was still a land of poor farmers with a small industrial base. Nonetheless, the Mexican Revolution had established a stable political system, tamed the military and the Catholic Church, and laid the foundations for the later industrialization of Mexico.

21 Argentina and Brazil, 1900- 1949

22 The Transformation of Argentina Introduction of railroads and refrigerator ships transformed Argentina from exporter of hides to meat. Introduction of railroads and refrigerator ships transformed Argentina from exporter of hides to meat. Oligarquia Oligarquia Export agricultural goods Export agricultural goods Import manufactured goods Import manufactured goods

23 Brazil and Argentina, to 1929 Middle class Middle class Exploitation of peasants after WW1 Exploitation of peasants after WW1 Industrialization Industrialization European and U.S. companies European and U.S. companies

24 The Depression and the Vargas Regime in Brazil Authoritarian regimes Authoritarian regimes Brazil Brazil Getulio Vargas Getulio Vargas Import substitution industrialization Import substitution industrialization Beneficial to urban workers Beneficial to urban workers Unequal distribution of wealth Unequal distribution of wealth Fascist state Fascist state Overthrown in 1954 Overthrown in 1954

25 Argentina After 1930 In 1943 Colonel Juan Peron est government that modeled Nazi Germany In 1943 Colonel Juan Peron est government that modeled Nazi Germany Populist dictatorship Populist dictatorship Rapid industrialization Rapid industrialization Lavish spending Lavish spending Depleted capital gained Depleted capital gained during war during war Failure to create a stable Failure to create a stable government government

26 Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil: a Comparison Mexico underwent a traumatic and profound social revolution. Argentina and Brazil remained under the leadership of conservative regimes that were devoted to the interests of the wealthy land workers and which were periodically overturned by military coups and populits demagogues. Mexico underwent a traumatic and profound social revolution. Argentina and Brazil remained under the leadership of conservative regimes that were devoted to the interests of the wealthy land workers and which were periodically overturned by military coups and populits demagogues.


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