Presentation on theme: "Striving For Independence India, Africa & Latin America"— Presentation transcript:
1Striving For Independence India, Africa & Latin America Chapter 30Striving For IndependenceIndia, Africa & Latin America
2I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 The Land and the PeopleMonsoonsAgriculture depended on monsoons- Able to support huge populationsmonsoons failed- 2 million died from starvation
3I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 2. Population growth250 million in 1900319 million in 1921389 million in 1941Cities became crowded with unemployedLess land available for peasant farmers
4I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 3. Divided PeopleMany different native languagesEnglish became medium of communication from middle and upper classesHinduism divided the people into hundreds of castes¼ of the population was Muslim
5I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 B. British Rule & Indian NationalismBritish RuleColonial India ruled by a viceroyappointed by British gov’tAdministered by the Indian Civil service- Mostly British- Efficient and honest
6I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 2. India’s EconomyEconomy modernized to benefit the BritishRailroads, harbors, telegraphs and irrigationIncreased foreign trade & British controlDiscouraged cotton & steel industries, training of Indian engineers- Protect British industry
7I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 3. Race and NationalismIndia’s middle class received European education- Freedom, representative governmentDiscovered racial quotas limited opportunities for Indians in Civil Service and officer corpsIndian National Congress formed (1885)to gain access to administrative positions, voice in governmentMuslims, fearful of Hindu dominance, founded the All-India Muslim League in 1906- giving India not one, but two independence movements.
8I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 4. Industrialization and NationalismThe British resisted the idea that India could or should industrialize,Pramatha Nath Bose of the Indian Geological Service and Jamseji Tata, a Bombay textile magnate, established India’s first steel mill in Jamshedpur in 1911.Jamshedpur became a powerful symbol of Indian national pride.
9I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 5. War and Nationalism1.2 million Indians volunteered to serve British army in WWIBritish made vague promise of self governmentThe influenza epidemic of 1918–1919 killed millions of Indians- Added to political tensionBritish general ordered his troops to fire into a crowd of 10,000 demonstrators (1919).
10I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 C. Mahatma Gandhi and Militant NonviolenceMohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi (1869–1948)English-educated lawyer who practiced in South AfricaJoined the INC during WWI.Gandhi’s political ideas included ahimsa (nonviolence) and satyagraha (the search for truth).
11I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 ImageGandhi dressed and lived simplyReached out to the poor, the illiterate, and the outcaststransformed the cause of Indian independence from an elite movement to a mass movement with a quasi-religious aura.
12I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 ProtestGandhi’s brilliant political tactician and master of public relations80 mile “Walk to the Sea” to make salt (1929)in violation of the government’s salt monopolyHunger Strikes to protest police violence and to demand independenceRepeated arrests and prison sentences.- Spent a total of 6 years in prison
13I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 D. India Moves Toward IndependenceBeginnings of Self RuleIn the 1920s the British slowly and reluctantly began to give Indians control of areas such as education, the economy, and public works.High tariff barriers were erected behind which Indian entrepreneurs were able to undertake a degree of industrializationthis helped to create a class of wealthy Indian businessmenlooked to Gandhi’s designated successor in the Indian National Congress–Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964)–for leadership.
14I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 WWIIDivided the Indian peopleIndians contributed heavily to the war effort- 2 million soldiers, natural resourcesthe Indian National Congress opposed the war- “Quit India” campaign
15I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 E. Partition and IndependenceDivisionMuslim League’s leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948) demanded that Muslims be given a country of their ownPakistan.Mutual animosity between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League led to the partition of India into two states- India and Pakistan (1947).
16I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 Violence and MigrationsPartition and independence were accompanied by violence between Muslims and Hindus- 500,000 killedmassive flows of refugeesHindus left predominantly Muslim areasMuslims left predominantly Hindu areas.12 million refugeesGandhi assassinated by Hindu refugee in 1948
17I. Indian Independence 1905-1947 4. India vs. PakistanDispute over the region of KashmirMajority of residents MuslimStrategically important- Foothills to Himalayas- Headwaters to rivers that irrigated millions of acres of farmsSeveral wars were fought over control Kashmir in 20th century