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Striving For Independence India, Africa & Latin America

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1 Striving For Independence India, Africa & Latin America
Chapter 30 Striving For Independence India, Africa & Latin America

2 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
The Land and the People Monsoons Agriculture depended on monsoons - Able to support huge populations monsoons failed - 2 million died from starvation

3 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
2. Population growth 250 million in 1900 319 million in 1921 389 million in 1941 Cities became crowded with unemployed Less land available for peasant farmers

4 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
3. Divided People Many different native languages English became medium of communication from middle and upper classes Hinduism divided the people into hundreds of castes ¼ of the population was Muslim

5 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
B. British Rule & Indian Nationalism British Rule Colonial India ruled by a viceroy appointed by British gov’t Administered by the Indian Civil service - Mostly British - Efficient and honest

6 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
2. India’s Economy Economy modernized to benefit the British Railroads, harbors, telegraphs and irrigation Increased foreign trade & British control Discouraged cotton & steel industries, training of Indian engineers - Protect British industry

7 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
3. Race and Nationalism India’s middle class received European education - Freedom, representative government Discovered racial quotas limited opportunities for Indians in Civil Service and officer corps Indian National Congress formed (1885)to gain access to administrative positions, voice in government Muslims, fearful of Hindu dominance, founded the All-India Muslim League in 1906 - giving India not one, but two independence movements.

8 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
4. Industrialization and Nationalism The British resisted the idea that India could or should industrialize, Pramatha Nath Bose of the Indian Geological Service and Jamseji Tata, a Bombay textile magnate, established India’s first steel mill in Jamshedpur in 1911. Jamshedpur became a powerful symbol of Indian national pride.

9 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
5. War and Nationalism 1.2 million Indians volunteered to serve British army in WWI British made vague promise of self government The influenza epidemic of 1918–1919 killed millions of Indians - Added to political tension British general ordered his troops to fire into a crowd of 10,000 demonstrators (1919).

10 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
C. Mahatma Gandhi and Militant Nonviolence Mohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi (1869–1948) English-educated lawyer who practiced in South Africa Joined the INC during WWI. Gandhi’s political ideas included ahimsa (nonviolence) and satyagraha (the search for truth).

11 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
Image Gandhi dressed and lived simply Reached out to the poor, the illiterate, and the outcasts transformed the cause of Indian independence from an elite movement to a mass movement with a quasi-religious aura.

12 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
Protest Gandhi’s brilliant political tactician and master of public relations 80 mile “Walk to the Sea” to make salt (1929) in violation of the government’s salt monopoly Hunger Strikes to protest police violence and to demand independence Repeated arrests and prison sentences. - Spent a total of 6 years in prison

13 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
D. India Moves Toward Independence Beginnings of Self Rule In the 1920s the British slowly and reluctantly began to give Indians control of areas such as education, the economy, and public works. High tariff barriers were erected behind which Indian entrepreneurs were able to undertake a degree of industrialization this helped to create a class of wealthy Indian businessmen looked to Gandhi’s designated successor in the Indian National Congress–Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964)–for leadership.

14 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
WWII Divided the Indian people Indians contributed heavily to the war effort - 2 million soldiers, natural resources the Indian National Congress opposed the war - “Quit India” campaign

15 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
E. Partition and Independence Division Muslim League’s leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948) demanded that Muslims be given a country of their own Pakistan. Mutual animosity between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League led to the partition of India into two states - India and Pakistan (1947).

16 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
Violence and Migrations Partition and independence were accompanied by violence between Muslims and Hindus - 500,000 killed massive flows of refugees Hindus left predominantly Muslim areas Muslims left predominantly Hindu areas. 12 million refugees Gandhi assassinated by Hindu refugee in 1948

17 I. Indian Independence 1905-1947
4. India vs. Pakistan Dispute over the region of Kashmir Majority of residents Muslim Strategically important - Foothills to Himalayas - Headwaters to rivers that irrigated millions of acres of farms Several wars were fought over control Kashmir in 20th century

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