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Chapter 30 Striving For Independence India, Africa & Latin America.

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1 Chapter 30 Striving For Independence India, Africa & Latin America

2 I. Indian Independence A.The Land and the People 1.Monsoons Agriculture depended on monsoons -Able to support huge populations monsoons failed -2 million died from starvation

3 I. Indian Independence Population growth 250 million in million in million in 1941 Cities became crowded with unemployed Less land available for peasant farmers

4 I. Indian Independence Divided People Many different native languages -English became medium of communication from middle and upper classes Hinduism divided the people into hundreds of castes ¼ of the population was Muslim

5 I. Indian Independence B. British Rule & Indian Nationalism 1.British Rule Colonial India ruled by a viceroy -appointed by British gov’t Administered by the Indian Civil service -Mostly British -Efficient and honest

6 I. Indian Independence India’s Economy Economy modernized to benefit the British -Railroads, harbors, telegraphs and irrigation -Increased foreign trade & British control Discouraged cotton & steel industries, training of Indian engineers -Protect British industry

7 I. Indian Independence Race and Nationalism India’s middle class received European education -Freedom, representative government Discovered racial quotas limited opportunities for Indians in Civil Service and officer corps Indian National Congress formed (1885)to gain access to administrative positions, voice in government Muslims, fearful of Hindu dominance, founded the All- India Muslim League in giving India not one, but two independence movements.

8 I. Indian Independence Industrialization and Nationalism The British resisted the idea that India could or should industrialize, Pramatha Nath Bose of the Indian Geological Service and Jamseji Tata, a Bombay textile magnate, established India’s first steel mill in Jamshedpur in Jamshedpur became a powerful symbol of Indian national pride.

9 I. Indian Independence War and Nationalism 1.2 million Indians volunteered to serve British army in WWI British made vague promise of self government The influenza epidemic of 1918–1919 killed millions of Indians -Added to political tension British general ordered his troops to fire into a crowd of 10,000 demonstrators (1919).

10 I. Indian Independence C.Mahatma Gandhi and Militant Nonviolence 1.Mohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi (1869– 1948) English-educated lawyer who practiced in South Africa Joined the INC during WWI. Gandhi’s political ideas included ahimsa (nonviolence) and satyagraha (the search for truth).

11 I. Indian Independence Image Gandhi dressed and lived simply Reached out to the poor, the illiterate, and the outcasts transformed the cause of Indian independence from an elite movement to a mass movement with a quasi-religious aura.

12 I. Indian Independence Protest Gandhi’s brilliant political tactician and master of public relations 80 mile “Walk to the Sea” to make salt (1929) -in violation of the government’s salt monopoly Hunger Strikes to protest police violence and to demand independence Repeated arrests and prison sentences. -Spent a total of 6 years in prison

13 I. Indian Independence D. India Moves Toward Independence 1.Beginnings of Self Rule In the 1920s the British slowly and reluctantly began to give Indians control of areas such as education, the economy, and public works. High tariff barriers were erected behind which Indian entrepreneurs were able to undertake a degree of industrialization -this helped to create a class of wealthy Indian businessmen -looked to Gandhi’s designated successor in the Indian National Congress–Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964)–for leadership.

14 I. Indian Independence WWII Divided the Indian people Indians contributed heavily to the war effort -2 million soldiers, natural resources the Indian National Congress opposed the war -“Quit India” campaign

15 I. Indian Independence E.Partition and Independence 1.Division Muslim League’s leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948) demanded that Muslims be given a country of their own -Pakistan. Mutual animosity between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League led to the partition of India into two states -India and Pakistan (1947).

16 I. Indian Independence Violence and Migrations Partition and independence were accompanied by violence between Muslims and Hindus -500,000 killed massive flows of refugees -Hindus left predominantly Muslim areas -Muslims left predominantly Hindu areas. -12 million refugees Gandhi assassinated by Hindu refugee in 1948

17 I. Indian Independence India vs. Pakistan Dispute over the region of Kashmir -Majority of residents Muslim Strategically important -Foothills to Himalayas -Headwaters to rivers that irrigated millions of acres of farms Several wars were fought over control Kashmir in 20 th century

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