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Gunpowder Empires Chapter 21-22? Ottomans in Middle East, Mughals in India, China & Japan.

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Presentation on theme: "Gunpowder Empires Chapter 21-22? Ottomans in Middle East, Mughals in India, China & Japan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gunpowder Empires Chapter 21-22? Ottomans in Middle East, Mughals in India, China & Japan

2 Middle East, India, China  Dominated postclassical period But position challenged in  Lingering vibrancy makes these areas less affected by European expansion  Seeds of 19 th century subordinance laid

3 Muslim Empires Ottomans, Safavids, & Mughals: from Bridge b/t Civs to Gunpowder Empires Chapter 21, pgs

4 The Ottoman Empire crash course intro Istanbul song

5 Turkey? When most think of Turkey, they think of…  Why are the birds called this? And, what can we learn from their names? …instead of…

6 Etymology of “Turkey”  Result of the Turks being the primary merchants responsible for trading the guinea fowl in Europe  Thus, when Spain opened the Americas, the domesticated birds found in the Aztec Empire gradually grew to be called, “turkeys.” In fact, the Ottomans were such import traders that corn was originally called, “turkey corn.”

7 Ottomans: Warriors to Empire

8 Question  Describe conflicts and competition that served to undermine Ottoman, Mughal, and Chinese governments.

9 Janissaries  Elite gunpowder force of Sultan  Part of Devshirme Process of enslaving young Christian boys Given a test  High performers – bureaucrats  Others – Janissaries  Based on the creation of a new slave aristocracy

10 Ottomans: Warriors to Empire

11 Question  Compare and contrast the Janissary corps and Chinese scholar-gentry.

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14 Mughals  Central Asian descendants of Mongols & Tamerlane seek to fill power vacuum Remember…rule of India is regionalism  Warrior elites depose Delhi Sultanate & begin building an empire of Muslim ruling elite over Hindu majority

15 Akbar the Great  Conquers much of India using cannons & muskets to defeat elephant units  Efforts to build prosperous empire Improve lives of women & poor Trade-based economy: vigorous internal trade due to unification, external trade of manufactures for silver & Asian goods brought by Europeans Ease tension b/t Hindus & Muslims

16 Religious Movements in Response to Hindu-Muslim Life In addition to Akbar’s Din-i-Ilahi… Sikhism: Started 10 prophets, called Gurus Evidence of period & prolonged contact b/t Hindus & Muslims 1. Karma  Reincarnation 2. Belief in enlightenment rather than heaven/hell 3. One God, pray 5 times daily 4. No caste system

17 Decline – Weak Successors  Few can follow vigor of Akbar’s leadership & desire to help foster prosperous society Shah Jahan & grandeur  Few maintain efforts to ease societal tensions Aurangzeb: gunpowder & Islamic emphasis gone too far

18 Reflect 1. Describe conflicts and competition that served to undermine Ottoman and Mughal governments. 2. Evaluate the extent to which the Ottomans and Mughals represent a departure in Middle Eastern and Indian history. 3. Compare the Ottoman and Mughal empires.

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20 Safavids: the Shia Challenge  Turkish warriors conquer Persia in wake of Mongols  Promoted Shia Islam  Developed a key rivalry with Ottomans  Case Study: Ottoman victory at the Battle of Chaldiran: Shia v. Sunni - ends Persian / Shia expansion Gunpowder v Gunpowder - bloody

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22 Demise of Safavids 1. Succession – harem, rival princes, & isolation of princes limited successful rule 2. Conservatism – slave-bureaucrats’ monopoly on gunpowder limits innovation 3. Internal strife – factional disputes with warrior elites 4. External pressure – European influence more detrimental due to relative weakness of Safavid technology

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