Presentation on theme: "Gunpowder Empires Chapter 21-22? Ottomans in Middle East, Mughals in India, China & Japan."— Presentation transcript:
Gunpowder Empires Chapter 21-22? Ottomans in Middle East, Mughals in India, China & Japan
Middle East, India, China Dominated postclassical period But position challenged in Lingering vibrancy makes these areas less affected by European expansion Seeds of 19 th century subordinance laid
Muslim Empires Ottomans, Safavids, & Mughals: from Bridge b/t Civs to Gunpowder Empires Chapter 21, pgs
The Ottoman Empire crash course intro Istanbul song
Turkey? When most think of Turkey, they think of… Why are the birds called this? And, what can we learn from their names? …instead of…
Etymology of “Turkey” Result of the Turks being the primary merchants responsible for trading the guinea fowl in Europe Thus, when Spain opened the Americas, the domesticated birds found in the Aztec Empire gradually grew to be called, “turkeys.” In fact, the Ottomans were such import traders that corn was originally called, “turkey corn.”
Ottomans: Warriors to Empire
Question Describe conflicts and competition that served to undermine Ottoman, Mughal, and Chinese governments.
Janissaries Elite gunpowder force of Sultan Part of Devshirme Process of enslaving young Christian boys Given a test High performers – bureaucrats Others – Janissaries Based on the creation of a new slave aristocracy
Ottomans: Warriors to Empire
Question Compare and contrast the Janissary corps and Chinese scholar-gentry.
Mughals Central Asian descendants of Mongols & Tamerlane seek to fill power vacuum Remember…rule of India is regionalism Warrior elites depose Delhi Sultanate & begin building an empire of Muslim ruling elite over Hindu majority
Akbar the Great Conquers much of India using cannons & muskets to defeat elephant units Efforts to build prosperous empire Improve lives of women & poor Trade-based economy: vigorous internal trade due to unification, external trade of manufactures for silver & Asian goods brought by Europeans Ease tension b/t Hindus & Muslims
Religious Movements in Response to Hindu-Muslim Life In addition to Akbar’s Din-i-Ilahi… Sikhism: Started 10 prophets, called Gurus Evidence of period & prolonged contact b/t Hindus & Muslims 1. Karma Reincarnation 2. Belief in enlightenment rather than heaven/hell 3. One God, pray 5 times daily 4. No caste system
Decline – Weak Successors Few can follow vigor of Akbar’s leadership & desire to help foster prosperous society Shah Jahan & grandeur Few maintain efforts to ease societal tensions Aurangzeb: gunpowder & Islamic emphasis gone too far
Reflect 1. Describe conflicts and competition that served to undermine Ottoman and Mughal governments. 2. Evaluate the extent to which the Ottomans and Mughals represent a departure in Middle Eastern and Indian history. 3. Compare the Ottoman and Mughal empires.
Safavids: the Shia Challenge Turkish warriors conquer Persia in wake of Mongols Promoted Shia Islam Developed a key rivalry with Ottomans Case Study: Ottoman victory at the Battle of Chaldiran: Shia v. Sunni - ends Persian / Shia expansion Gunpowder v Gunpowder - bloody
Demise of Safavids 1. Succession – harem, rival princes, & isolation of princes limited successful rule 2. Conservatism – slave-bureaucrats’ monopoly on gunpowder limits innovation 3. Internal strife – factional disputes with warrior elites 4. External pressure – European influence more detrimental due to relative weakness of Safavid technology