Presentation on theme: "Declarations in Dialogue"— Presentation transcript:
1Declarations in Dialogue Susan JarrattComparative Literature
2The Human and its others: forging bonds Bourgeois tragic drama: individual and community(reading literary texts)Drama and short story; multiple characters, voices, stancesDeclarations: texts that enact political bonds--citizenship(reading rhetorically)How different are these ways of reading? Do literary texts transform society? Can we find irony, contradiction, indirection, multiple voices in political texts? Can political texts be comedies, tragedies, satires?
3Christopher WeyantNew Yorker, 14 January 2013p. 45
4Declaration of Independence, by John Trumbull, commissioned 1817; purchased 1819; placed 1826 in the Rotunda in United States Capitol, Washington, D.C., United States
5Talking back, taking up, recirculating Declaration of Independence (1776), Thomas Jefferson et al.Letters of Abigail Adams to John Adams ( )The Haitian Declaration of Independence (1804), Jean-Jacques DessalineS“Declaration of Sentiments” (1848), Elizabeth Cady Stanton, et al. - Seneca Falls Convention on the Rights of WomenFrederick Douglass, “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?” (1852speech)Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. Written by Himself (1845)
6The Declaration: set in stone? “Words are the building stones of systems” (Goethe’s Faust, , p. 155)Monument to the signers of the Declaration of Independence, Washington D.C. Mall
8Rhetoric: some definitions Language in action; doing things with words; a mode of analysis that brings forward the performative nature of textsKEY WORDSrepresentationethospublics, public sphere, circulationgenre
9FROM “Questions for rhetorical analysis” (HANDBOOK CH. 12) Who appears to speak (write, perform, etc.) in this text? How would you describe the speaker’s ethos (the character, style, stance, capacities)?For or on behalf of whom? i.e., does the speaker purport to represent a group? What are the difficulties entailed in “speaking for” a group? Does this rhetorical text allow for multiple voices?What genre (type) of product is it? Letter, speech, manifesto, editorial, essay, dialogue, debate, etc.? Are the features of this genre well established? Does this text strain or violate them? Play with or parody them?What do you know about delivery and/or circulation of this rhetorical act? Through what media (print, oral presentation) does it come to life?
10“WE HOLD THESE TRUTHS TO BE SELF-EVIDENT, THAT ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL . . .” – What do you think? A. The United States in the 21st century has realized the promise made in the Declaration of Independence.B. We’ve done a pretty good job, but we have a way to go.C. I disagree with the statement.D. It’s not the responsibility of the government to assure that these rights are fully realized for every citizen.E. Another opinion
11WHERE DID THE DECLARATION Come FROM? Enlightenment background—four interwoven strands of influence
12Political PHILOSOPHY John Locke, English philosopher (1632-1704) Two Treatises of GovernmentSocial contract theory--an agreement by the governed (rational individuals) on a set of rules by which they are governed--civil rights based on the contract--violation demands renegotiation or legitimates rebellion
1318thC POLITICS: --rejection of the divine right of kings --regime change through popular movements and violent protest: revolution--from relation of monarch/subject to nations of sovereign selves/citizensPortrait by Allan Ramsay, 1762, George III, King of the United Kingdom,
14Louis XVI, King of France : Ancien regimeAbsence of rule of law: lettres de cachetFrench revolution, 1789Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the CitizenAntoine-François Callet, 1788
15An 18th-century Republic of Letters Immanuel Kant, German philosopher ( ): “The public use of a man’s reason must be free at all times [by this I mean] the use which a scholar makes of it before the entire reading public” (134).A bourgeois public sphere: spaces where people read, discussed, and wrote about opinions, issues, and ideas“Spheres” are actual spaces (salons, pubs, coffee houses, academies, debating societies), textual spaces (newspapers, books, journals, pamphlets, cartoons, broadsides), and imagined spaces:Jürgen Habermas, Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society.  Trans. Thomas Burger. Cambridge: MIT P, ; trans. 1989)Immanuel Kant, “What is Enlightenment?” Foundations of Metaphysics and Morals, and What Is Enlightenment? Trans. Lewis White Beck. New York: Liberal Arts P, 1959.
16Voltaire, French polemicist (1694-1778) Polemics -- wars of words; attacking through languageDefender of civil liberty and freedom of religion; opposed censorship,Attacked abuses of royalty and clergy who perpetrated superstition and intoleranceWrote 20,000 letters; 2,000 books and pamphletsVoltaire, French polemicist ( )Bust of Francois Marie Arouet De Voltaire ( ) 1778by Jean-Antoine Houdon
17----- Meeting Notes (1/29/12 17:06) ----- Anciet Charles Gabriel Lemonnier (French, ): Madame Geoffrin's salon in 1755, oil on canvas, Château de Malmaison, Rueil-Malmaison, France. Painted 1812.Anciet Charles Gabriel Lemonnier (French, ): Madame Geoffrin's salon in 1755, oil on canvas, Château de Malmaison, Rueil-Malmaison, France. Painted 1812.
1818thC ECONOMY: vast income gaps, taxation, colonial exploitation, slavery British colonies in America (see Declaration)Suffering peasantry in FranceSaint-Domingue (Haiti), valuable French colony - plantations worked by African slaves(Toussaint L’Ouverture, , leader of slave revolt in Haiti)
19Local Context – american colonies Levying of taxes on the colonies by the parliament to cover expenses from the French and Indian War (Sugar Act, 1764: Stamp Act, 1765; Tea Act, 1773)Occupation of Boston by British troops; Boston Massacre, 1770Coercive Acts punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party, 1774First Continental Congress, September 1774; petitions to parliament and the king; boycottArmed resistance to British troops: April 1775From economic concerns to constitutional principles (taxation without representation) through rhetorical and military acts
20What is a “declaration” anyway? THE Declaration of Independence?
21Related genres Declarations depositio apologia: deposing British monarchs -- 7 previous occasions from ; a public “apology”(rationale) for dethroning a “tyrannical” monarch (Lucas 152)Jefferson’s constitution of VirginiaPetitions of various colonies and of the First Continental Congress: “humble terms”Thomas Paine’s Common Sense, a pamphlet advocating colonial independence and republican government, January 1776DeclarationsEngland: Glorious Revolution, : Declaration of Rights -- parliament indicts James IIDeclaration of war“the very existence [of a declaration] signaled a breakdown in the standard operations of government” (Lucas 150)Stephen E. Lucas, “The Rhetorical Ancestry of the Declaration of Independence.” Rhetoric and Public Affairs 1.2 (Summer 1998): Print.
22Writing task, processSecond Continental Congress: Committee of Five -- a collaborative assignmentJefferson charged with drafting17 days from assignment to adoptionSources: Lucas; Maier
23Organization 1. “When in the course of human events . . .” 2. The priority of first principles (warrants): self- evident truths3. Support: “facts submitted to a candid world”4. Background: petitions, warning, appeal, regretful separation5. Conclusion: declaration of independence
24Self-Evident Truths, unalienable rights Pursuit of happiness? A collective enterpriseHappiness is “built on the highest Perfection of intellectual Nature”; “the necessary Foundation of our Liberty.” CoLocke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 1689Intellectual and moral judgment; a value of human life derived from self-scrutiny, altruism, and public spiritLaurence Sterne, “Inquiry After Happiness” (Angnlican sermon, 1740s)Andrew Burstein, Sentimental Democracy. The Evolution of America’s Romantic Self-Image. New York: Hill and Wang, 1999: Print.
25Revision: From “subject” to “citizen” Marc Kaufman, “Jefferson changed ‘subjects’ to ‘citizens’ in Declaration of Independence.” Washington Post 3 July Internet. Accessed 27 January 2012.
26Who is included? drafts of the Declaration A Declaration (1). . . for a People to advance from that Subordination (1)“the merciless Indian Savages . . .” (6)“He has incited treasonable insurrections of our fellow-citizens . . .” (6)“He has constrained others . . .” [impressment of seamen] (6)The unanimous Declaration. . . for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another“the merciless Indian Savages . . .”“He has excited domestic insurrection among us . . .“He has constrained our fellow citizens taken Captive on the high Seas . . .”
27Rejected paragraphs (6-7) “He has waged cruel War against human Nature itself, violating its most sacred Rights of Life and Liberty in the Persons of a distant People who never offended him, captivating and carrying them into Slavery in another Hemisphere, or to incur miserable Death, in their Transportation thither. This piratical Warfare, the opprobrium of infidel Powers, is the Warfare of the Christian King of Great Britain.“He has prostituted his Negative for Suppressing every legislative Attempt to prohibit or to restrain an execrable Commerce, determined to keep open a Market where Men should be bought and sold, and that this assemblage of Horrors might want no Fact of distinguished Die.“He is now exciting those very People to rise in Arms among us, and to purchase their Liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the People upon whom he also obtruded them: thus paying off, former Crimes committed against the Liberties of one People, with Crimes which he urges them to commit against the Lives of another.”
28Jefferson, slave holder “These are not just biographical questions; they are national ones.”“ slavery was so widely accepted that contradictions between the evolving ideals and the brutish reality of enslavement were overlooked or tolerated”“Life, Liberty, and the Fact of Slavery”Edward Rothstein (New York Times, 26 January 2012)
29Affiliation, identification Our British brethren (7)the ties of our common kindred (8)consanguinitySoldiers of our own blood These facts have given the last stage to agonizing affectionsWe must endeavor to forget our former love for them. . . To hold them as we hold the rest of mankind enemies in war, in peace friends.Our British brethren (7)the ties of our common kindredconsanguinity. . . To hold them as we hold the rest of mankind enemies in war, in peace friends.
30What did the Declaration do? Unified the 13 colonies: “The Unanimous Declaration . . .”Put the language of natural rights into circulation: “We hold these truths to be self-evident “Performatively brought a nation into being –“We, therefore, do publish and declare “
31Interpreting the Declaration Ethos: Through revision, a citizen-subject came into being.The Declaration as an Enlightenment text: The Declaration attempts to give voice to a new political subject: the citizen capable of uniting with others in a nation for the purpose of realizing the Enlightenment ideals of equal rights, liberty, and happiness. It failed to realize this goal fully by excluding specific categories of “man”: women, enslaved people, and Indians among others.Genre, intertextuality: Although the Declaration drew on existing documents, ideas, and language, it has an inaugural power derived from its genre (declaration), its revolutionary force, and its success at putting into circulation Enlightenment ideas.
32CirculationTwo broadsides: On the left, the Dunlap Broadside, published and distributed the evening of July 4, 1776, Philadelphia. Signed on ly by Hancock. On the right, the Goddard Broadside, published by Mary Katherine Goddard, publisher/printer, January 1777, Baltimore, with names of the all but one of the original signers.
33More declarationsDeclaration of the Occupation of New York City, 29 September 2011As we gather together in solidarity to express a feeling of mass injustice, we must not lose sight of what brought us together. We write so that all people who feel wronged by the corporate forces of the world can know that we are your allies.As one people, united, we acknowledge the reality: that the future of the human race requires the cooperation of its members; that our system must protect our rights, and upon corruption of that system, it is up to the individuals to protect their own rights, and those of their neighbors; that a democratic government derives its just power from the people, but corporations do not seek consent to extract wealth from the people and the Earth; and that no true democracy is attainable when the process is determined by economic power.CALIFORNIA CONSTITUTION (ratified 1879)ARTICLE 1 DECLARATION OF RIGHTS SECTION 1. All people are by nature free and independent and have inalienable rights. Among these are enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining safety, happiness, and privacy. CALIFORNIA CONSTITUTION ARTICLE 1 DECLARATION OF RIGHTS SEC. 2. (a) Every person may freely speak, write and publish his or her sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of this right. A law may not restrain or abridge liberty of speech or press.
34Obama’s second inaugural address January 21, 2013 “We hold these truths to be self-evident . . .”“Today we continue a never ending journey to bridge the meaning of those words with the realities of our time. For history tells us that while these truths may be self-evident, they’ve never been self-executing.”