6 From the age of six I had a mania for drawing the shapes of things. When I was fifty I had published a universe of designs. but all I have done before the the age of seventy is not worth bothering with. At seventy five I'll have learned something of the pattern of nature, of animals, of plants, of trees, birds, fish and insects. When I am eighty you will see real progress. At ninety I shall have cut my way deeply into the mystery of life itself. At a hundred I shall be a marvelous artist. At a hundred and ten everything I create; a dot, a line, will jump to life as never before. To all of you who are going to live as long as I do, I promise to keep my word. I am writing this in my old age. I used to call myself Hokusai, but today I sign my self 'The Old Man Mad About Drawing. -- Hokusai Artist: Hokusai , Tokugawa period)
8 Hokusai. Great Wave
9 Great Wave, reversed.
10 Vincent van Gogh. Starry Night
11 Portuguese Jesuits, merchants and African slave arrive in Japan, 1542.
13 Utamaro. Three Beauties. Cover, New Yorker magazine.
14 Seeking the Tao In the Autumn Mountains. N. Song. 10th c. By Juran. Hanging scroll, Ink on silk.
15 BUDDHISM : ABOUT THE Laughing Buddha In China he is known as "the laughing Buddha" and is usually represented as a rotund figure with a happy disposition. Originally a fertility figure, he brought "goodies" in his bag to local townsfolk, especially children. In Japan, called Hotei, one of the seven lucky gods. Most people encounter this figure in Chinese shops and restaurants and confuse him for the historical Buddha. The common tradition is to rub his belly for good luck and prosperity, this is because his big figure is a sign of abundance.
16 BUDDHISM and spread
17 BUDDHISM. A world religion or philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha* and holding that a state of enlightenment can be attained by detaching oneself from worldly desires. *Buddha: One who has awakened. Founder of Buddhism: Siddhartha Gautama (family name) ( 563?-483?) meditation--> enlightenment-->nirvana (recognize that atman and brahman are reunited in this life) Practice: Middle Way between extremes knowledge of 4 Truths 8-Fold Path (right thoughts and actions)
18 EAST, Buddhism: Nirvana Moksha: release from Maya or Samsara (daily life, lives) Karma: deeds Dharma: the Way Enlightenment (satori) Emptiness WEST, Classicism: Plato’s Allegory of the Cave Things are not what they appear to be. Cave: World of Illusion.
19 The Four Noble Truths 1. Life is full of "suffering". 2 This suffering is caused by our desires. 3. There is a cure. 4. The cure is the Eightfold Path. “right”: seeing and acting in accordance with things as they are. enlightenment: West: cognitive knowledge, rational understanding. East: awakening, transcending desires and acceptance of the way things are.
20 BUDDHISM From HINDUISM Founder: Siddhartha Gautama ca. 500 B.C.E. Meditation Other forms of Buddhism: INDIA MAHAYANATHERAVADA/ TIBET: VAJRAYANA (Great Vehicle) HINAYANA (little vehicle) skill-based method: Bodhisattva individualsmust seek visualization exercises: Prayers and rituals wisdom and nirvana (Mandala) CHINA KOREA JAPAN on their own. Mostly CHINA: Chan monks and nuns MAITREYA: JAPAN Shintoism in SE ASIABuddha of the Future ZEN AMITABHA: Buddha of the Western Paradise VAIROCHANA: Supreme Cosmic Buddha
Dream of Maya, Birth of the Buddha 21 The Buddha - biography + history
Capitals to Monumental Buddhist Pillars, 3 rd c BCE 22
Stupa at Sanchi, India 3 rd c BCE 23
Torana (gate) and Yakshi (fertility deity) 24
25 Stupa of Sanchi ca. 3 rd c BCE-1 st c CE Egg Mandala Jakatas vs. aniconic representation
Gandhara Mathura Style 27 Gandharan: Model of a Stupa. Grey schist, 2 nd c. Prana filled Buddha w/ ushnisha top knot Red sandstone
Buddhist Art in India & China 1 st -7 th centuries CE 28
East-West: Architectural and Functional Similarities 29 Santa Sabina, Christian Church, Rome, Ce Section + Plan: Chaitya hall, Karli, India CE 50-70
Ajanta Caves, Maharashtra, India late 5 th c: ca CE 30
Ajanta Caves, late 5 th c., India 31
Naturalistic Ajanta murals: Prince Distributing Alms + Padmapani (Lotus Bearer). Think of : rasa 32
Buddhist Expansion into China 2 nd -7 th centuries CE Vairochana Buddha 33 Colossal Buddha ~40ft high, cave carving, Yungang, China, ca 450 CE Longmen, China, 6 th centtury
Vairochana Buddhas. 7 th c., China 49ft high th century Bamiyan, Afghanistan. 180 ft high.
Parinirvana of the Buddha, Sri Lanka, 11 th -12 th c. 21’ x 46’ long. 35
Thailand: Emerald Buddha (Buddha as King) 15 th c. 37
USA: Nam June Paik ( ) TV Buddha,
39 Seated Buddha, Senso-ji Temple, Tokyo
40 Seated Buddha. Iconography (symbolism): Meditation: act of concentrating mind on something deeply and carefully.
43 Tibetan Mandala
44 Map of Thailand Kowloon urban night scene (samsara).
45 Wat (temple) Si Chum, Sukhothai, Thailand. Access to Enlightenment => on path to Nirvana
46 Sukhothai Buddha Wat Si Chum, Thailand
47 Giant Buddha at Sukhothai, northern Thailand.
48 Nun praying next to gold-fingered Buddha.
49 Rooftop view of the Buddha. Sukhothai.
50 ZEN AND BUDDHISM Mu Ch'i "Six Persimmons" Painting Southern Song Later 13th c. Ink on paper. 14 1/4". Elemental. Origins Hinduism Buddhism Taoism Shintoism Essence Koan practice
51 ZEN BUDDHISM zen (Japanese) <= ch’an (Chinese)<= India Enlightenment sought via meditation to tap into reality by means of intuition (non-mind). Break through daily, conventional, worldly chatter (samsara) Various Devices: koans (paradoxical riddles): “What is the sound of one hand clapping?” Bodhidharma-> brought Buddhism to China, spread to Japan. Ch’an --> Zen in Japan.
52 The moon shines without being polished.
53 Hakuin Ekaku ( ), Blind Men on a Bridge. Ink on paper.
54 Landscape by Sesshu Toyo ( ), Dated Hanging scroll; Ink on paper. Donald Keene: Characteristics of Japanese style Suggestion Perishability Irregularity Simplification
55 Buddhist Meditation
56 Tea Ceremony
57 Zen: Impact on West Zen: most popular form of Buddhism for Westerners. Mostly Unknown till modern times, ~ 50 years ago. 3 Channels: 1) Western scholars: Alan Watts (Beat Zen, Square Zen) 2) American servicemen and women after WWII, 1940s+. Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Nagasaki, City Lights Bookstore, SF 3) Arrival of Asian immigrants (Japanese Tea Garden, SF, Golden Gate Park) Most Western Buddhist practice is meditation. Influenced NY and SF “Beat” writers, and artists.
58 Once again in love once again regrets, as fleeting as cherry blossoms. Ishikawa Toyonobu, 18 th c. The apparition of these faces in the crowd; Petals on a wet, black bough. Ezra Pound, “In a Station of the Metro.” England Haiku and Imagist poetry. HAIKU form: 3 lines:5-7-5 syllables 17 syllables total (in Japanese)
59 Much of admiration for Japanese art can be traced to Zen influences on Japanese Architecture, poetry, ceramics, calligraphy, Gardening, tea ceremony, flower arrangements, crafts. Qualities: Irregular, spontaneous, simple, suggestive : By Isamu Noguchi
60 Zen, admirable qualities: Simplicity Emptiness Directness naturalness Characteristics of Japanese style Suggestion Perishability Irregularity Simplification Meditation Gardens
61 ZEN FLESH, ZEN BONES: 101 STORIES Apperception Self-discovered person “A special teaching without scriptures, beyond words and letters, pointing to the mind-essence of man, seeing directly into one’s nature, attaining enlightenment.”
62 1. A Cup of Tea Nan-in, a Japanese master during the Meiji era ( ), received a university professor who came to inquire about Zen. Nan-in served tea. He poured his visitor's cup full, and then kept on pouring. The professor watched the overflow until he could no longer restrain himself. "It is overfull. No more will go in!" "Like this cup," Nan-in said, "you are full of your own opinions and speculations. How can I show you Zen unless you first empty your cup?" ZEN FLESH, ZEN BONES: 101 STORIES
63 ZEN FLESH, ZEN BONES: 101 STORIES 14. Muddy Road Tanzan and Ekido were once traveling together down a muddy road. A heavy rain was still falling. Coming around a bend, they met a lovely girl in a silk kimono and sash, unable to cross the intersection. "Come on girl," said Tanzan at once. Lifting her in his arms, he carried her over the mud. Ekido did not speak again until that night when they reached a lodging temple. Then he no longer could restrain himself. "We monks don't go near females," he told Tanzan, "especially not young and lovely ones. It is dangerous. Why did you do that?" "I left the girl there," said Tanzan. "Are you still carrying her?"
64 ZEN FLESH, ZEN BONES: 101 STORIES 18. A Parable. A man traveling across a field encountered a tiger. He fled, the tiger after him. Coming to a precipice, he caught hold of the root of a wild vine and swung himself down over the edge. The tiger sniffed at him from above. Trembling, the man looked down to where, far below, another tiger was waiting to eat him. Only the vine sustained him. Two mice, one white and one black, little by little started to gnaw away at the vine. The man saw a luscious strawberry near him. Grasping the vine with one hand, he plucked the strawberry with the other. How sweet it tasted!'
65 ZEN FLESH, ZEN BONES: 101 STORIES 49.The Black-Nosed Buddha. A nun who was searching for enlightenment made a statue of Buddha and covered it with gold leaf. Wherever she went she carried this golden Buddha with her. Years passed and, still carrying her Buddha, the nun came to live in a small temple in a country where there were many Buddhas, each one with its own shrine. The nun wished to burn incense before her golden Buddha. Not liking the idea of the perfume straying to the others, she devised a funnel through which the smoke would ascend only to her statue. This blackened the nose of the golden Buddha, making it especially ugly.
66 Review Early Buddhism founded by: Bodhidarma Siddhartha Chuang Tzu? Where first? Spread? Maya, samsara, cave: what have in common? 4 Noble Truths: 8-Fold Path: rightness standard? Middle Way Satori, Nirvana. Enlightenment: West, East Mandala Mudra Zen’s lineage: Special qualities? ways of learning, achieving Enlightenment? Spread to West via: Koan.
67 10 Bulls or the oxherding pictures
68 10 B u l l s 1. The Search for the Bull 6. Riding the Bull Home 2. Discovering the Footprints 7. The Bull Transcended 3. Perceiving the Bull 8. Both Bull and Self Transcended 4. Catching the Bull 9. Reaching the Source 5. Taming the Bull 10. In the World metaphor spiritual journey
69 1. The Search for the Bull In the pasture of this world, I endlessly push aside the tall grasses in search of the bull. Following unnamed rivers, lost upon the interpenetrating paths of distant mountains, My strength failing and my vitality exhausted, I cannot find the bull. I only hear the locusts chirring through the forest at night.
70 1. The Search for the Bull 6. Riding the Bull Home 2. Discovering the Footprints 7. The Bull Transcended 3. Perceiving the Bull 8. Both Bull and Self Transcended 4. Catching the Bull 9. Reaching the Source 5. Taming the Bull 10. In the World 10 Bulls.
71 2. Discovering the Footprints Along the riverbank under the trees, I discover footprints! Even under the fragrant grass I see his prints. Deep in remote mountains they are found. These traces no more can be hidden than one's nose, looking heavenward.
72 3. Perceiving the Bull I hear the song of the nightingale. The sun is warm, the wind is mild, willows are green along the shore, Here no bull can hide! What artist can draw that massive head, those majestic horns?
73 4. Catching the Bull I seize him with a terrific struggle. His great will and power are inexhaustible. He charges to the high plateau far above the cloud-mists, Or in an impenetrable ravine he stands.
74 5. Taming the Bull The whip and rope are necessary, Else he might stray off down some dusty road. Being well trained, he becomes naturally gentle. Then, unfettered, he obeys his master.
75 6. Riding the Bull Home Mounting the bull, slowly I return homeward. The voice of my flute intones through the evening. Measuring with hand-beats the pulsating harmony, I direct the endless rhythm. Whoever hears this melody will join me.
76 7. The Bull Transcended Astride the bull, I reach home. I am serene. The bull too can rest. The dawn has come. In blissful repose, Within my thatched dwelling I have abandoned the whip and rope.
77 8.Both Bull and Self Transcended. Whip, rope, person, and bull-- All merge in No-thing. This heaven is so vast no message can stain it. How may a snowflake exist in a raging fire? Here are the footprints of the patriarchs.
78 9. Reaching the Source Too many steps have been taken returning to the root and the source. Better to have been blind and deaf from the beginning! Dwelling in one's true abode, unconcerned with that without -- The river flows tranquilly on and the flowers are red.
In the World Barefooted and naked of breast, I mingle with the people of the world. My clothes are ragged and dust-laden, and I am ever blissful. I use no magic to extend my life; Now, before me, the dead trees become alive.
80 1. The Search for the Bull 6. Riding the Bull Home 2. Discovering the Footprints 7. The Bull Transcended 3. Perceiving the Bull 8. Both Bull and Self Transcended 4. Catching the Bull 9. Reaching the Source 5. Taming the Bull 10. In the World
83 Carl Andre. Sixteen Steel Cardinal Style: Minimalism.
84 Carl Andre
85 Donald Judd ( ) Woodcut, from portfolio “Artists Against Torture.” galvanized steel Sculpture
86 Works by Robert Mangold, Anthony Caro, Robert Ryman
88 Zen meditation gardens Characteristics of Japanese style Suggestion Perishability Irregularity Simplification Garden of Daisenin, Kyoto.
89 European monastery garden Middle Ages Views of Japanese Zen monastery garden,
90 Katsura Palace pleasure garden, Japan Versailles Palace garden, France Taj Mahal, Agra, India yrs: garden Imperial GardensImperial Gardens
91 Once again in love once again regrets, as fleeting as cherry blossoms. Ishikawa Toyonobu, 18 th c. Screen painting and Haiku poem.
92 Once again in love once again regrets, as fleeting as cherry blossoms. Ishikawa Toyonobu, 18 th c. The apparition of these faces in the crowd; Petals on a wet, black bough. Ezra Pound, “In a Station of the Metro.” Haiku and Imagist poetry. HAIKU form: 3 lines:5-7-5, 17 syllables (in Japanese)
93 Agnes Martin, American. I can see humility Delicate and white It is satisfying Just by itself... And Trust absolute trust a gift a precious gift
95 Character for “Mu” for “no thing” “no” By Tori Enji ( )
96 Villa Rotunda, Palladio, Vicenza, Italy Renaissance
97 Katsura Palace, Japan
98 Frank Lloyd Wright, American Architect ( ). Falling Water, Bear Run, PA., 1936
99 Wright, Fallingwater, Katsura Palace
103 Hakuin Ekaku ( ), Blind Men on a Bridge. Ink on paper.
104 Pieter Bruegel, Christ’s Parable of the Blind Leading the Blind, 1568 “And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into a ditch.”
105 7 Dwarves on a Log— Inspiration? Parallels?