Presentation on theme: "MASO SEX1 Jean-Jacques Rousseau Philosopher,1712 - 1778 * Jean-Jacques Rousseau attributed his need to be spanked to become sexually aroused to being spanked."— Presentation transcript:
MASO SEX1 Jean-Jacques Rousseau Philosopher, * Jean-Jacques Rousseau attributed his need to be spanked to become sexually aroused to being spanked as a child. Rousseau was sent off to school at age 8, and boarded with a minister and his sister. The minister's sister, Miss Lambercier, was a very loving and affectionate woman who nevertheless frequently used corporal punishment. As Rousseau puts it: “Who would believe this childish discipline, received at eight years old, from the hands of a woman of thirty, should influence my propensities, my desires, my passions, for the rest of my life, and that in quite a contrary sense from what might naturally have been expected?: CORPORAL PUNISHMENT ANE FUSION OF SEX AND VIOLENCE Masochistic sex is enjoyment of pain and humiliation during sex * Long standing belief that it is a side effect of spanking children * The study illustrates how a long standing belief can be tested * Previously: only case study and personal testimony * Is it generally true, and how generally?
MASO SEX2 PREVALENCE OF MASOCHIST SEX Kinsey et al. (1953): 12% of females and 22% of males became sexually aroused by sado-masochistic stories Probably an underestimate * Popularity of Madonna's song "Hanky Panky (A Little Spanky)" * Bondage and discipline clubs and list serves * But these may just reflect intrigue with with sex of any kind, or taboo sex, or anything that is taboo Need a study to find out how much: Fantasizing about masochistic sex such as being tied up or spa when having sex Actually participating in masochistic sex
MASO SEX3 THEORETICAL QUESTION IF CP IS A RISK FACTOR FOR MASOCHISTIC SEX, WHAT COULD LEAD TO THAT RELATIONSHIP? Genetic Inheritance Theories 1. Preference for masochistic sex is inherited, and has nothing to do with spanking experienced as a child. Because nearly everyone has been spanked, there is a correlation, but that is a spurious relationship, not a causal relation 2. Spurious relation between spanking as a child and masochism. Both are inherited. So they are correlated, but one does not cause the other John Money (leading medical sex researcher) Neurological theory: Because the centers of the brain that process feelings of sexual arousal and feelings of pain are in such close proximity, when they are stimulated simultaneously many times over a long period of time, the brain can no longer separate the two. Thus feelings of sexual arousal and pain become forever woven together. This fusion is especially likely because the most common ages for spanking are two to six
MASO SEX4 Add slide for theories by Straus, Gagnon, etc from BCD chapter. “It may mean a spanking now and then, but I'll make sure he knows it's because I love him.”
MASO SEX5 HOW WOULD YOU DO A STUDY TO FIND OUT IF THERE IS A LINK BETWEEN CP AND MASOCHISTIC SEX? 1. What kind of sample? 2. What would be the independent variable? 3. What would be the dependent variable? 4. How might you measure the dependent variable?
MASO SEX6 THE STRAUS AND DONNELLY STUDY (Chapter 8 in Beating The Devil Out of Them) RESERARCH QUESTIONS: 1. Prevalence rate – how prevalent is masochistic sexual interest? 2. Is corporal punishment associated with an increased probability of masochistic sexual preference? (Is CP a risk factor) 3. What is the effect of the combination of CP and high parental affection? SAMPLE: 207 students (76 men and 131 women) in sociology and psychology classes at three universities and colleges in the Northeast MEASURE OF CP: How often spanked by mother the year you were spanked the most, and the same question for father
MASO SEX7 MEASURE OF MS: Six questions (embedded in a series of questions about sex) * Having a partner restrain me as part of sex play * Having a partner spank me as part of sex play * Engaging in playful fights and being physically rough with partner - Each answered twice – How many times in the past year they had been sexually aroused by imagining each these behaviors, and for being sexually aroused while doing these things. - Two scoring methods: (1) If the participant indicated that any one or more of the six had happened: coded as having a masochistic sexual interest (2) The number of masochistic behaviors – can range from 0 to 6 MODERATOR VARIABLE: Parental warmth (to test theory that it is the combination of love and violence that leads to masochistic sex)
MASO SEX8 RESULTS FOR PERCENT AROUSED BY IMAGINING AND BY ACTUAL BEHAVIOR PREVALENCE OF MASOCHISTIC SEXUAL AROUSAL 29% had become excited by imagining a play fight 48% had been sexual aroused by a play fight 30% became sexually aroused while imagining "Having a partner restrain me as part of sex play" 26% became excited while actually being restrained 7% aroused by imaging being spanked 7% aroused by actually being spanked 61% had been sexually aroused imagining or doing one or more of the three activities in the Masochistic Sex Index
MASO SEX9 How different and how similar are men and women?
MASO SEX11 * Men have higher rates of MS * Effect of CP is same for men and women
MASO SEX12 Even for those who had the most loving parents, those who were high in CP were higher in MS
MASO SEX13 Nine percentage point difference 19 percentage point difference
MASO SEX14 HOW TO READ A TABLE OF “ODDS RATIOS” (Increasingly used method)
MASO SEX15 LIMITATIONS (ASK CLASS) Very difficult to establish a cause and effect link between spanking and some adult behavior such as masochistic sex because experiments are not possible and longitudinal studies are expensive University student sample: * Young and experimenting * Not representative of even all youth Participants may not have fully disclosed * Need a “social desirability” scale to measure limited disclosure and then control for it Measure has only three masochistic behaviors – may need to be more comprehensive
MASO SEX16 CONCLUSIONS Masochistic sex is "...not part of normative arousal-activity patterns..." (DSM III-R, p. 279) * May be true in the sense of cultural norms, but it seems to be off the mark statistically * Almost two thirds of the students sexually aroused by at least one of the three masochistic asexual activities in the Masochistic Sex Index * At least some masochistic is part of the sexual repertoire of the majority of college students, not a rare form of sexual deviance The belief that women tend toward masochism more than men was not supported -- Found the opposite, at least for sexual masochism CP is a risk factor for masochistic sex for both men and women
MASO SEX17 CONCLUSIONS (continued) CP is linked to MS regardless of whether the parents were cold or warm and loving The relation of CP to MS is strongest when parents are warm and loving. Probably because this establishes a link between love and violence in the brain of developing infants and toddlers Results suggest that the wide use of corporal punishment on American ` children is one reason for the prevalence of MS
MASO SEX18 WHAT HAS BEEN LEARNED FROM THIS LECTURE? About Family Violence Prevalence of masochistic Sexual Interest (MS) Parental warmth and love moderate the effect of CP At any level of CP, children of loving parents are less likely to have an interest in MS But when CP is combined with parental warmth, the effect of CP is increases Research Methods Differences between “test of significance” and “effect size” Moderator or interaction effect How to interpret odds ratios