Presentation on theme: "Essential Question: What were the major provisions of Wilson’s 14 Points & the Treaty of Versailles? Warm-Up Question: What were the purposes of the WIB."— Presentation transcript:
1Essential Question:What were the major provisions of Wilson’s 14 Points & the Treaty of Versailles?Warm-Up Question:What were the purposes of the WIB & CPI during WWI?Which group was more affected by WWI: African-Americans, Women, or Socialists? Explain
2The End of World War I The world was transformed by WWI: 22 million soldiers & civilians had died; 20 million were wounded; 10 million became refugeesTowns & farms along the Western & Eastern Fronts were destroyedThe war cost an estimated $338 billion & massive funds were needed to rebuild Europe
6Devastation in Europe Due to WWI After the War: Village of EsnesBefore the War: Village of Esnes
7Devastation in Europe Due to WWI After the War: Hotel de la Princerie, VerdunBefore the War: Hotel de la Princerie, Verdun
8Wilson’s Fourteen Points President Woodrow Wilson believed that America ought to take a lead in shaping the peace processNear the end of the war, President Wilson developed his peace plan known as the Fourteen Points:Based on eliminating the reasons for WWI (militarism, imperialism)Hoped to avoid all future wars by creating an international forum to discuss & arbitrate problems
9Group Activity: Examining Wilson’s Fourteen Points In groups, examine Wilson’s Fourteen Points:Using the chart in your notes, write in your own words what each section of Wilson’s peace plan meansDevelop an image or symbol that captures the main idea for each section of the planDo not write anything in the column titled “Was this point part of the Treaty of Versailles?” (We will do this a bit later)Answer the questions below the chart & be prepared for a quick class discussion
10Wilson’s Fourteen Points President Wilson’s Fourteen Points contained three main themes:(Points 1-5) Create new rules that would eliminate the causes of WWINo more secret treatiesReduction of militariesFreedom of the seasInternational control over colonies to end imperialismFirst, Wilson said that nations should not make secret treaties. He believed that all agreements between nations should be made public.• Second, peace would be more likely if world powers reduced their militaries and arms. With smaller armies, nations would be less likely to declare war.• Third, there should be freedom of the seas. No nation had the right to interfere with the shipping or trade of another nation. Wilson regretted that Germany’s attacks on the American ships had contributed to the entry of the United States into World War I.• Fourth, nations should remove or lower tariffs. A tariff is a tax on goods that one country or nation ships to another. Tariffs make it difficult for a nation to sell their goods to the people of another nation.• Fifth, there would be international control over colonies in an effort to eliminate imperialism. The fight for colonies had been a major point of conflict between the nations involved in World War I.
11Wilson’s Fourteen Points (Points 6-13) Divide weak empires like Austria-Hungary & the Ottoman Empire into new nations based on national “self-determination”New nations should have their borders drawn with consideration to ethnic & national identitiesNew nations should be free to choose their own governments21
12Wilson’s Fourteen Points (Point 14) To create a League of Nations to settle all future international problems by compromise rather than by warOne of Wilson’s most original and important ideas was to form an association of nations. He wanted the nations of the world to form a world congress. Problems between countries could then be taken to this congress. There they would be worked out by compromise, or agreement, and not by war.21
13The Treaty of Versailles, 1919 Wilson traveled to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 to help create the Treaty of Versailles:He hoped his Fourteen Points would become the framework for the peace treatyBut, Wilson quickly learned that European leaders did not share his vision for a “peace without victory” & wanted Germany to be punished
14“The Big Four” French Premier George Clemenceau British Prime Minister David Lloyd GeorgeWILSON AT VERSAILLES, Prime Minister David Lloyd George, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, Premier Georges Clemenceau and President Woodrow Wilson at the Versailles Palace during the Treaty Negotiations in 1919.“The Big Four”Italian Prime Minister Vittorio OrlandoU.S. President Woodrow Wilson
15During the peace process, Wilson had to compromise some of his Fourteen Points
16The Treaty of Versailles, 1919 Delegates agreed to create a League of Nations that included:General Assembly of 27 nations with an Executive CouncilCourt of International JusticeAgreement that arbitration & economic sanctions would be used to settle conflictsAn agreement that member nations would work together to stop future acts of aggression
17The Treaty of Versailles, 1919 Other treaty provisions included:Austria-Hungary was split in two, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, & Poland were formedGermany had to accept the “war guilt clause,” pay $33 billion in reparations, & lost all coloniesNo mention of free trade; No end to imperialism, no reduction in militaries for any of the Allies
18Europe & Middle East Before & After World War I Land was taken from Germany & given to Poland; Germany’s border with France was demilitarized to avoid a future invasionThe Ottoman Empire was divided; Britain & France gained mandates in the Middle EastCentral Europe was redrawn to reduce the power of the Austro-Hungarian EmpireNew nations were created from territory taken from Russia (who left WWI early after the Bolshevik Revolution)Europe & Middle East Before & After World War I
19The Treaty of Versailles, 1919 But, President Wilson could not sign the treaty because Article I of the Constitution gives the Senate the power to ratify all treatiesOn June 28, 1919, the Treaty of Versailles was signed by Germany & officially ended WWIBut, many U.S. Senators did not like the treaty because of the League of Nations
20Closure ActivityCompare Wilson’s Fourteen Points with the provisions in the Treaty of Versialles. On your chart, write down whether Wilson’s ideas made it into the final treatyRead “Hitler’s Reaction to the Treaty of Versailles”What criticisms does Hitler have?What does he say needs to be done to save Germany?Why do historians say that the Treaty of Versailles led to WWII?
21New International Rules? Points 1-5:New International Rules?Points 6-13:Divided Empires, New Nations, Self-Determination?Point 14: A League of Nations?
23Essential Question:Why did the USA refuse to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations?Warm-Up Question:What were the major themes of Wilson’s Fourteen Points?Why don’t you think more of his Fourteen Points made it into the Treaty of Versailles?
24The Treaty of Versailles, 1919 All the major European powers signed the Treaty of Versailles & joined the League of NationsBut, the Senate was divided about what joining the League would mean for the future of the United States
25Group Activity: Debate over the League of Nations The class will be divided into groups:Read your assigned role & form an “expert group” with students from other groups who were assigned the same role you wereWhen finished, return to your original group & participate in a Senate debate to decide if the U.S. should join the LeagueUse the chart provided to take notes during your expert group & group discussion
26Debrief: Overview of Roles The Senate was divided:Strong Internationalists supported U.S. membership in the League of NationsMild Internationalists supported the League but wanted to avoid future warsMild Reservationists rejected the League over fears of being forced into future warsStrong Reservationists wanted major changes to the League if the U.S. were to joinIrreconcilables who opposed the League & wanted to maintain U.S. isolationismUse this slide to debrief with students & check for accuracy. When finished explaining the various Senate roles, begin the reading “U.S. Rejection of the Treaty of Versailles”
27Read “U.S. Rejection of the Treaty of Versailles”
28Members of the League of Nations (in black) The U.S. never joined the League & signed its own peace treaty with Germany in 1921
29Conclusions The impact of the Great War: The U.S. began the 20th century as an imperial power & reluctantly entered WWI to protect free tradeInvolvement in WWI led to changes for women & blacks, an economic boom, & the restriction of libertiesThe U.S. played a major role in the peace process, but refusal to join the League weakened the ability of world leaders to stop World War II
30The following slides are hidden but can be used as teaching points if needed
31The Debate over the League of Nations 2/3 of the Senate was needed to ratify the treaty & join the League:Internationalists supported Wilson & saw the League was a way to guarantee world peace in the futureStrong reservationists led by Henry Cabot Lodge wanted major changes to Article 10Irreconcilables led by William Borah wanted isolationism & refused join the League under any circumstances22
32Rejection in the Senate Reservationists & Irreconcilables attacked the treaty & League:Wilson did not want to weaken the League of Nations & refused to compromise with the SenateWilson toured the U.S. to gain public support for the treaty, but had a stroke during the tourIn 1920, the Senate voted against the treaty & U.S. membership in the League of Nations