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CHAPTER FOURTEEN The Renaissance and Reformation.

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1 CHAPTER FOURTEEN The Renaissance and Reformation

2 T he Renaissance began in Italy and slowly spread through Europe. The Church was still a major power as well as primary patron of the arts. An emerging middle class began to question the old foundations of power and knowledge. At the same time education became more available and the printing press was developed. This progress aided individual achievement and scientific inquiry which, along with new wealth, set the stage for the Renaissance to match and even surpass ancient Greek and Roman learning.

3 Section one The renaissance in Italy Vocabulary 1.PATRON- person who provides financial support for the arts. 2.HUMANISM- intellectual movement at the heart of the Italian Renaissance that focused on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues. 3.PERSPECTIVE- artistic technique used to give drawings and paintings a three - dimensional effect. What was the renaissance? The renaissance was a time of creativity and changes in many areas – political, social, economic, and cultural. Renaissance minds set out to transform their own age. It was a rebirth after the disorder and disunity of the medieval world. Latin had survived as the language of the Church and of educated people. It produced new attitudes toward culture and learning. Renaissance thinkers were eager to explore the richness and variety of human experience in the here and now. Supported a spirit of adventure and a wide ranging curiosity that led people to explore new worlds.

4 ITALIAN BEGINNINGS The Renaissance began in Italy in the mid 1300s and spreaded north to the rest of Europe. The renaissance was marked by a reawakened interest in the culture of ancient Rome Italy was the birth place of the Renaissance. Italy was the center of ancient Roman history, it was only natural for this awakened to start there. Architectural remains, antique statues, coins, and inscriptions – all were visible reminders of Italians of the “ glory that was Rome”. Italy’s cities had survived the Middle Ages. In the North, cite – states like Florence, Milan, Venice, and Genoa grew into prosperous centers or trade and manufacturing. Merchants exerted both political and economic leadership, and their attitudes and interests helped to shape the Italian Renaissance. Florence and Medicis Florence came to symbolize the Italian Renaissance. It produced a number or gifted poets, artists, architects, scholars, and scientists. The Medicis family of Florence organized a banking business which prospered and expanded into wool manufacturing, mining, and other ventures. Money translated into cultural and political power. Cosimo de’ Medici gained control of the Florentine government in 1434, and the family continued as uncrowned rulers of the city for many years. Cosimo had a grandson named Lorenzo who was known as “The Magnificent” for representing the Renaissance Ideal. He held Florence together during difficult times.

5 Humanism Focused on worldly subjects rather than on the religious issues that had occupied medieval thinkers. Humanist scholars hoped to used the wisdom of the ancients to increase their understanding of their own times. The main areas of study that the humanists thought stimulated the individuals powers were grammar, poetry, and history, based on Greek and Roman texts. Golden Age in the arts The Renaissance reached its most glorious expression in its paintings, sculpture, and architecture. Renaissance artists portrayed religious figures such as Mary, Jesus, and the saints. 1.Leonardo - was born in His paintings were of realism and freshness. 2.Michelangelo – was a sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet. Based his masterpieces on Christ. 3.Raphael – was younger than both Leonardo and Michelangelo. His paintings had a blend of Christian and classical styles.

6 Section two the renaissance moves north ARTISTS OF THE NOTHERN RENAISSANCE The northern renaissance began in the 1400s in the prosperous cities of Flanders, a region that included parts of what is today Northern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Spain, France, Germany, and England enjoyed their great cultural rebirth 100 years later, in the 1500s. The great Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus used his knowledge of classical languages to produce a new Greek edition of the New Testament. He created a much improved Latin translation of the entire Bible. Erasmus had a friend who was a English humanist named Sir Thomas More. He used his pen to press for social and economic reform. He describes and ideal society, where men and women live in peace and harmony. LITERATURE OF THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE Erasmus and More wrote mostly in Latin, many northern writers used the modern languages of their countries. Shakespeare – Between 1590 and 1613, he wrote 37 plays that are still performed around the world. His tragedies show human beings crushed by powerful forces or their own weakness. Shakespeare’s love of words vastly enriched the English language. Cervantes – produced an entertaining tale that mocks romantic notions of medieval chivalry called Don Quixote. The printing revolution The Chinese had learned to make paper and had printed books centuries earlier. Printing presses sprang up in Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, and England. The printing revolution brought immense changed. Printing influenced both religious and secular thought. The new presses contributed to the religious turmoil that engulfed Europe in the 1500s. Christians could read the Bible for themselves.

7 SECTION THREE THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION VOCABULARY 1.INDULGENCE- in the Roman Catholic Church, pardon for sins committed during a person’s lifetime. 2.RECANT – to give up one’s view or beliefs. 3.PREDESTINATION – idea that God long ago determined who will gain salvation. 4.THEOCRACY – government run by church leaders. Abuses in the church Beginning in the late Middle Ages, the church had become increasingly caught up in worldly affairs. Pope competed with Italian princes for political power. They fought long wars to protect the Papal States against invasions by secular rulers. During the Renaissance, popes, like other Renaissance rulers, maintained a lavish lifestyle. They hired painters and sculptors to beautify churches and spend vast sums to rebuild the cathedral of St. Peter’s at Rome. For it to happen, the Church increased fees for religious services like marriages and baptisms. The church had granted indulgences only for good deeds, such as going on a crusade. Many Christians protested such practices.

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9 Luther’s protest Protests against Church abuses continued to grow. In 1517, these protests erupted into a full – scale revolt. The man who triggered the revolt was a German monk and professor of theology named Martin Luther. He grew increasingly disillusioned with what he saw as a corruption and worldliness of the church. In 1517, a German priest named Johann Tetzel set up a pulpit on the outskirts of Wittenberg. With the approval of the pop, he sold indulgences to any Christian who contributed money for the new Cathedral of St. Peter in Rome. Tetzel claimed that purchase of these indulgences would assure the entrance into heaven nor only of the purchasers but of their dead relatives as well. Tetzel was an insult to Martine Luther which made him mad to see people paying for indulgences instead of seeking true repentance. Luther then drew up 95 Theses, a list of arguments against indulgences. He argued that indulgences had no basis in the Bible, that the pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory, and that Christians could be saved through faith. All most overnight, copies of Luther’s 95 Theses were printed and distributed across Europe, where they stirred up furious debate. The Holy Roman emperor, Charles V, summoned Luther to the diet where he was expecting to defend his writings. 1.He argued that salvation could be achieved through faith alone. 2.He declared that the Bible was the sole source of religious truth. 3.He rejected the idea that the priests and the Church hierarchy has special powers.

10 Spread of Lutheran ideas Many of the clergy saw Luther’s reforms as the answer to corruption in the Roman Catholic Church. Some people saw Lutheranism as a way to throw off the rule of both the Church and the Holy Roman emperor. Others welcomed a chance to seize church property in their territory. Still other Germans supported Luther because of the feelings of national loyalty. The peasants also took up Luther’s banner. They hoped to gain his support for social and economic change as religious reform. The rebels demanded an end to serfdom and other changes in their harsh lives but Luther denounced it. he urged nobles to suppress the rebellion. During the 1530s and 1540s, the Holy Roman emperor Charles V tried to force Lutheran princes back into the Catholic Church The peace of Augsburg, signed in 1555, allowed each prince to decide which religion – Catholic or Lutheran would be followed in his lands. John Calvin He had a logical, razor sharp mind, and his ideas had a profound effect on the direction of the Protestant Reformation. He believed that salvation was gained through faith alone. He taught that God was all powerful and that humans were sinful. Calvin preached predestination, the idea that God has long ago determined who would gain salvation. To Calvinists, the world was divided into two kinds of people – saints and sinners. Calvin set up a theocracy or government run by church leaders

11 Section four reformation ideas spread Vocabulary 1.ANNUL – to cancel or invalidate. 2.GHETTO – separate section of a city where members of a minority group are forced to live. THE ENGLISH REFORMATION religious leaders such as John Wycliffe had called for a Church reform as early as the 1300s. By the 1520s even some English clergy were toying with protestant ideas. Henry VIII stood firm against the Protestant revolt. Popes had freed rulers from marriages before. But the current pope did not want to offend the powerful Holy Roman emperor Charles V, Catherine of Aragon’s nephew. Mary had Elizabeth imprisoned in the tower of London. She waited in terror for her mother who had gone to her death from the tower. THE CATHOLIC REFORMATION As the protestant Reformation swept across northern Europe, a vigorous reform movement took hold within the catholic church. Pope Paul III set out to revive the moral authority of the Church and toll back the Protestand tide. To end corruption within the papacy itself, he appointed reformers to key posts. Pope Paul set out the Inquistion which used secret testimony, torture, and execution to stamp out heresy,

12 Section five the scientific revolution VOCABULARY 1.HELIOCENTRIC – based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe. 2.GRAVITY – force that tends to pull one mass or object to another. Changing views of the world Nicolaus Copernicus proposed a heliocentric or sun – centered, model of the universe. The sun stood at the center of the universe and the earth is just one of the several planets that revolved around the sun. Most experts rejected this revolutionary theory, which contradicted both Church teachings and the teachings of Ptolemy. In the late 1500s, the danish astronomer tycho Brahe provided evidence that supported Copernicus’s theory. He set up an astronomical observatory. After Brathe died, his assistant Johannes, used Brahe’s data to calculate the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun. His calculations supported Copernicus’s heliocentric view. The scientific method – complex mathematical calculations were used to convert the observations and experiments into scientific laws. Gravity – was made by Isaac Newton. He showed that a single force keeps the planets in their orbits around the sun. Chemistry – slowly freed itself from the magical notions of alchemy. Robert Boyle distinguished between individual elements and chemical compounds. He explained the effect of temperature and pressure on gasses.

13 REGENTS QUESTIONS Which statement best expresses an idea held by many Renaissance humanist philosophers? a.People should study worldly subjects as well as sacred matters. b.Governments should establish overseas empires. c.Individuals should withdraw from the world and study religion. d.Scholars should dedicate themselves to the study of life after death. 2. Which factor best characterizes the art of both ancient Greece and the Renaissance? a.Emphasis on the human form. b.Focus on the biblical themes. c.Dominance of landscape paintings. d.Influence of the West African tradition. 3. Which factor contributed to the beginning of the Renaissance in Italian cities? a.Occupation by foreign powers b.Interaction with Latin America c.Surplus of porcelain from Japan d.Access to important trade routes 4.Sir Isaac Newton Galilieo Galilei, and Johannes Kephler are all directly associated with the : a. Industrial Revolution b.Scientific Revolution c.English Revolution d.Agricultural revolution 5. In the early 1500s, Martin Luther’s “Ninety – five Theses<“ Henry VIII’s “act of Supremacy.” and John Calvin’s Institute of the Christian Religion contributed to a.a decline in the power of the Catholic Church b. an increased sense of nationalism in Tudor England c.The growing power of the feudal nobility In Europe. d.A major conflict among eastern Orthodox Christians

14 ANSWERS 1.A. 2.A. 3.A. 4.B. 5.B.

15 This project was done by : Kimberly De La Santa Period : F Teacher : Mr. Hernandez Sources : Pictures : google Information : global II textbook


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