2 WHAT WAS THE PROTESTANT REVOLTUION? WHAT WERE THE CAUSES OF THE PROTESTANT REVOLUTION?1. Corruption of the clergy and the worldliness of the Church.“Instead of saving the souls of the dead and sending them to Heaven, [the clergy] gorge themselves at banquets after funerals They are wicked wolves! They would like to devour us all, dead or alive.”2. Beginning in the late Middle Ages, the Church had become increasingly caught up in world affairs. Popes competed with Italian princes for political power.3. During the Renaissance, popes, like other Renaissance rulers, maintained a lavish lifestyle.When Leo X, a son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, was elected pope, his is said to have exclaimed: “God has given us the papacy – let us enjoy it!”4. Popes became patrons of the arts and they spent vast sums of money to beautify churches and build St. Peter’s at Rome. To raise these funds they increased fees for religious services and sold indulgences.WHAT WERE INDULGENCES?
3 MARTIN LUTHER (1483 – 1546)In 1517, a German priest names Johann Tetzel set up a pulpit on the outskirts of Wittenberg: “Don’t you hear the voices of your dead parents and other relatives crying out?” “’Have mercy on us, for we suffer great torment from which you can release us with a few [pennies].’”“As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs.”This outraged Luther who then drew a list of 95 theses, or arguments, against indulgences. He posted his arguments on the door of the door of the Wittenberg’s All Saints Church.MARTIN LUTHER
4 LUTHER’S TEACHINGSLuther argued that salvation could be achieved through faith alone. He rejected the Church doctrine that good deeds were necessary for salvation.Luther declared that the Bible was the sole source of religious truth. He denied other traditional authorities, such as Church councils or the pope.Luther rejected the idea that priests and the Church hierarchy had special powers. He talked, instead, of the “priesthood of all believers.” All Christians had equal access to God through faith and the Bible.Luther translated the Bible into the German vernacular so that ordinary people could study by themselves.
5 THE PEASANT’S REVOLT (1524) What was the Peasant’s Revolt?What was the end result of the revolt?
6 JOHN CALVIN (1509 – 1564)His teachings found in his book, Institutes of the Christian Religion:Calvin believed that salvation was gained through faith alone.Calvin taught that the Bible was the only source of religious truth.Calvin taught that God was all powerful and that humans were by nature sinful.God alone decided whether or not an individual achieved eternal life.Calvin preached predestination, the idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation.In 1541, Protestants in Geneva created a theocracy with Calvin as its leader.
7 RADICAL REFORMERSANABAPTISTS :Spoke out against infant baptism.Some sought radical social changes.Most were peaceful and called for religious toleration and the separation of church and state.Many modern groups developed from these radical reformers:BaptistsQuakersMennonitesAmish
8 THE ENGLISH REFORMATION Henry VIII - wanted to break with the Church for political reasons.1534 – Act of Supremacy (made the king “the only supreme head of the Church of England.”Henry VIII was not a religious radical, he kept most Catholic forms of worship.Elizabeth was a moderate who adopted a policy of religious compromise.Henry VIIIElizabeth I